Greatest Paintings
Finest religious pictures, portraits, still lifes and landscapes by the Greatest Old Masters.

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Greatest Paintings (800-1800)

Jupiter and Io (1530) By Correggio.


Greatest Paintings (800-1800)

Greatest Modern Paintings (1800-1900)

Greatest 20th Century Paintings (1900-2000)


Further Resources

Greatest Renaissance Paintings (1400-1600)

Greatest Portrait Paintings (1400-2000)

Greatest Genre Paintings (1500-2000)

NOTE: Paintings are Listed Chronologically under Artist's Name

A - B - C - D - E-F - G - H - I-J-K - L - M-N-O - P - Q-R - S - T - U-V - W-Z


Our list of over 250 masterpieces includes works in encaustic, tempera, oils and watercolour, across all the painting genres, by Europe's greatest Old Masters, (Jan van Eyck, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Vermeer, Goya and lots more). Selected by our Editor, the list covers all the painting genres - narrative (meaning religious paintings as well as mythological and historical pictures), portraits, landscapes, still lifes and genre paintings - and exemplifies all the major art movements which arose during the period. We hope it will serve as a basis for further study into the world of fine art painting. For analysis, see Famous Paintings Explained (c.1250-1800).

Greatest Paintings (800-1800)


Albrecht Altdorfer (1480-1538)
German painter, leader of Danube school of painting; noted for landscapes, etchings, woodcuts.
• Battle of Alexander at Issus (1529) oil on panel, Alte Pinakothek Munich.

Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530)
Florentine artist known as the "faultless painter", had Venetian sense of colour and tone.
• Madonna of the Harpies (1517) oil on wood, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Fra Angelico (1387-1455)
Dominican Friar, Florentine religious painter.
• The Linaiuoli Triptych (1433) tempera on panel, Museo di San Marco, Florence.
The Annunciation (c.1450) fresco, San Marco Musem, Florence.

Anonymous Artists (600-800)
The names of the artist-scribes who painted the early Illuminated Manuscripts are not known to us. Fortunately, many of their miniature paintings have survived, as exemplified by the wonderful Book of Kells - see, in particular, its spectacular Monogram Page (Chi/Rho) (c.800). Other medieval masterpieces created by unknown artists include The Wilton Diptych (1395-99).

Antonello da Messina (1430-1479)
Was allegedly taught oil painting by Jan Van Eyck; influenced Giovanni Bellini.
Christ Crowned with Thorns (Ecce Homo) (1470) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
• Portrait of a Man (1475) oil on panel, National Gallery, London.
• Condottiero (1475) oil on wood, Louvre, Paris.

Giuseppe Arcimboldo (1527-93)
Italian Mannerist painter, known for his surrealist portrait art using fruit & vegetables.
• Winter (1573) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.
• The Gardener (A Joke with Vegetables) oil on panel, Museo Civico, Cremona.
• Emperor Rudolf II as Vertumnus (1591) oil on wood, Skoklosters Slott, Sweden.


Baciccio (Giovanni Batista Gaulli) (1639-1709)
Italian architectural painter known for his illusionist frescoes.
• Adoration of the Name of Jesus (1674-9) Fresco, Sant'Ignazio, Rome.

Hans Baldung Grien (1484-1545)
Painter & graphic artist of the German Renaissance, noted for his fantasy and grotesque imagery.
• Coronation of the Virgin Altarpiece (1512-16) oil on wood, Frieburg im Breisgau.
• The Three Ages of Man with Death (c.1540) oil on panel, Prado, Madrid.

Jacopo Bassano (1517-92)
Venetian painter outclassed only by Titian, Tintoretto and Veronese.
• The Last Supper (1547) oil on canvas, Galleria Borghese, Rome.

Gentile Bellini (c.1429-1507)
Noted for historical view-paintings (vedute) of Venice, and Doges' portraits.
• Procession of the True Cross in St Mark's Square (1496) Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice.

Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516)
Foremost artist of the early Venetian Renaissance.
• St Job Altarpiece (1480) oil/tempera on panel, Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice.
• The Ecstasy of St. Francis (1480) Frick Collection, New York.
Doge Leonardo Loredan (1502) National Gallery, London.
• The San Zaccaria Altarpiece (1505) Church of San Zaccaria, Venice.

Bernardo Bellotto (1721-80)
Venetian painter, nephew & pupil of Canaletto.
• Entrance to the Grand Canal, Venice (1741) oil, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.
• View of the Ponte delle Navi, Verona (1745) oil on canvas, Private Collection.

William Blake (1757-1827)
English Romantic artist, visionary painter and printmaker.
• God Judging Adam (1795) (relief etching finished by hand) Tate Britain.

Hieronymus Bosch (Jerome van Aken) (1450-1516)
Intensely religious Dutch painter; early Surrealist.
Haywain Triptych (1490) Prado Museum, Madrid.
Garden of Earthly Delights (1504) Prado Museum, Madrid.
• The Last Judgement (Triptych) (1505-10) Bildendenkunste, Vienna.
• Ecce Homo (1515-6) Fine Art Museum, Ghent.

Alessandro Botticelli (1445-1510)
One of the greatest Florentine painters of the early Renaissance.
• Revolt Against the Law of Moses (1481-2) fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican.
Birth of Venus (1482-6) tempera on canvas, Uffizi, Florence.
La Primavera (1482-3) tempera on panel, Uffizi, Florence.

Francois Boucher (1703-70)
French Rococo painter, draughtsman, etcher and designer.
• Madame de Pompadour (1758) oil on canvas, Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

Dierec Bouts (1415-75)
Netherlandish painter influenced by the techniques of Van Eyck & Van der Weyden.
• The Entombment (1450s) National Gallery, London.
• Last Supper (1464-7) oil on wood, Church of Saint Peter, Leuven, Belgium.

Melchior Broederlam (c.1350-1411)
Flemish court painter to Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.
Dijon Altarpiece (1394-99) Museum of Fine Arts, Dijon.

Agnolo Bronzino (1503-72)
Florentine Mannerist painter, pupil of Pontormo, worked for Cosimo I de' Medici.
• Portrait of Lucrezia Panciatichi (1540) oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence.
Allegory with Venus and Cupid (c.1545) National Gallery, London.
• Portrait of Lodovico Capponi (1550-55) Frick Collection, New York.

Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c.1525-1569)
One of the best genre-painters of the Northern Renaissance.
Netherlandish Proverbs (1559) oil on oak, Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
Mad Meg (Dulle Griet) (1562) oil on panel, Mayer van den Bergh Museum, Antwerp.
Tower of Babel (1563) oil on wood, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Hunters in the Snow (1565) oil on panel, K.M., Vienna.
• The Census of Bethlehem (1566) tempera on panel, Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Brussels.
Massacre of the Innocents (1564) oil on panel, K.M., Vienna.
Parable of the Blind (1568), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples.
Peasant Wedding (1568) oil on oak, K.M., Vienna.


Robert Campin (1375-1444)
Tournai-based Dutch Master of Flemalle, founder of the Flemish School.
Seilern (Entombment) Triptych (1410) gold leaf on panel, Courtauld Institute, London.
Merode Altarpiece (c.1427) (the Annunciation Triptych) Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
• Werl Altarpiece (Diptych) (1438) oil on panel, Prado Museum, Spain.

Canaletto (1697-1768)
Venetian painter (vedutista), famous for precise architectural pictures (vedute) of Venice.
• The Molo Against the Zecca (before 1740) oil on canvas, Private Collection.
• Basin of San Marco on Ascension Day (c.1740) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

Caravaggio (1571-1610)
17th Century Italian artist and master of chiaroscuro, who revolutionized religious painting.
• Judith and Holoferns (1599) oil on canvas, Palazzo Barberini, Rome.
The Calling of Saint Matthew (1599-1600) Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi.
The Martyrdom of Saint Matthew (1599-1600) Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi.
Conversion on the way to Damascus (1601) Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo.
Supper at Emmaus (1601) National Gallery, London.
Crucifixion of Saint Peter (1601) Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome.
Death of the Virgin (1601-6) Louvre, Paris.
The Entombment of Christ (1601-3) Vatican Museums, Rome.
Amor Vincit Omnia (1602) Gemaldegalerie SMPK, Berlin.

Annibale Carracci (1560-1609)
Bologna-based painter, involved in transition from Mannerism to Baroque.
Farnese Gallery Frescos "The Loves of the Gods" (1597-1608), Rome.

Jean Chardin (1699-1779)
One of the best still life painters in France. Noted for highly polished small-scale works.
• The Ray (1728) Louvre, Paris.
• The Silver Goblet (1735) Louvre, Paris.
• The Silver Tureen (1728) Metropolitian Museum of Art, New York.
• Still Life with Ray-Fish and Basket of Onions (1731) North Carolina Museum of Art.

Petrus Christus (c.1410-75)
Outstanding Flemish painter, pupil of Jan van Eyck.
• The Lamentation (1455) Musee Royaux des Beaux Arts, Brussels.
Portrait of a Young Girl (1470) Gemaldegalerie, Berlin.

John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
One of the greatest portraitists and history painters in American Colonial art.
• The Death of Major Pierson (1782-4) oil on canvas, Tate Gallery, London.

Correggio (1489-1534)
High Renaissance Italian artist of Emilia, noted for altarpieces, and illusionistic frescoes.
Assumption of the Virgin (Parma Cathedral) (1524-30) fresco.
Jupiter and Io (1531-2) oil on canvas, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553)
German painter, woodcut artist, noted for portraits, nudes, history paintings.
• Portrait of Luther and Wife (Diptych) (1529) oil on wood, Uffizi, Florence.

Aelbert Cuyp (1620-91)
Dordrecht Dutch Realist, rated one of the best landscape artists of the Dutch Golden Age.
• Dordrecht from the North (1650) oil on canvas, Rothschild Collection.
• River Landscape with Horseman & Peasants (1658) National Gallery, London.

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Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
Greatest French Neoclassicist; leading exponent of history painting.
Oath of the Horatii (1785) oil on canvas, Louvre Museum, Paris.
Death of Marat (1793) oil on canvas, Musees Royaux des Beaux Arts, Brussels.

Dionysius (c.1440-1502)
Leading figure of the 15th century Moscow school of painting.
Mural Paintings (c.1480) Virgin Nativity Cathedral, Ferapontov Monastery, Novgorod.

Duccio Di Buoninsegna (1255-1319)
Most famous painter of the Sienese School of pre-Renaissance painting.
Maesta Altarpiece (1308-11), polyptych tempera on panel, Siena Cathedral Museum.
Stroganoff Madonna and Child (c.1300), tempera on panel, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Albrecht Durer (1471-1528)
German printmaker, painter; greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance; noted especially for his self portraits, still lifes and narrative works.
• Self-Portrait (1498) Prado, Madrid.
Self-Portrait in Fur Coat (c.1500) Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
A Young Hare (1502) watercolour painting, Albertina, Vienna.
Great Piece of Turf (1503) Albertina, Vienna.
• Adam and Eve (1507) Prado Museum, Madrid.
• The Four Apostles (2 panels) (1526) oil on wood, Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641)
Flemish painter active in England, famous for his Baroque portraits, notably of Charles I.
• Portrait of Cardinal Bentivoglio (1623) Palazzo Pitti, Florence.
• Triple Portrait Of King Charles I (1635) British Royal Collection.
• Equestrian Portrait of Charles I (1638) National Gallery, London.


El Greco (1541-1614)
Stylistic Greek painter, active in Spain, noted for his large-scale religious paintings.
• Holy Trinity (1577-9) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
The Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio) (1577) Cathedral of Toledo
The Burial of Count Orgaz (1586-88) Church of Santo Tome, Toledo, Spain.
View of Toledo (1595-1600) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Christ driving the Traders from the Temple (1600) National Gallery, London.
Portrait of a Cardinal (1600) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Portrait of Felix Hortensio Paravicino (c.1605) Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Adam Elsheimer (1578-1610)
German landscape painter, etcher, draughtsman, noted for small-scale paintings on copper.
• Flight into Egypt (1609) oil on copper, Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Jan van Eyck (1390-1441)
Ranks with Campin as the greatest artist of the Flemish School; pioneer of oil painting.
Ghent Altarpiece (1432) oil on wood, Saint Bavo Catherdal, Ghent.
Portrait of a Man in a Red Turban (1433) oil on wood, National Gallery, London.
Arnolfini Portrait (1434) oil on wood, National Gallery.
• The Rolin Madonna (1435) oil on wood, Louvre, Paris.

Fra Filippo Lippi (1406-69)
Early Renaissance Florentine painter, influenced by Masaccio, known for his religious frescos.
• Annunciation with Two Kneeling Donors (1445) oil, GNd'AA, Rome.

Jean Fouquet (1420-81)
Greatest painter of the 15th century French Renaissance.
Melun Diptych (1450-55) oil on panel, Koninklijk Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp.
Portrait of Charles VII of France (1445-50) oil on -panel, Louvre, Paris.

Jean Honore Fragonard (1732-1806)
One of the greatest French Rococo painters, pupil of Francois Boucher.
The Swing (Fragonard) (1767) oil on canvas, Wallace Collection, London.
• Young Girl Reading (1776) National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.
• The Bolt (1777) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.

Henry Fuseli (1741-1825)
Swiss-born Romantic painter, draughtsman, active in England.
The Nightmare (1781) oil on canvas, Detroit Institute of Arts.


Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88)
Englands greatest 18th century portrait and landscape artist.
• The Painter's Daughters with a Cat (1761) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.
• Jonathan Buttall: "Blue Boy" (1770) Huntington Library & Gallery, San Marino.

Artemisia Gentileschi (1597-1651)
Female Italian Renaissance artist, one of the greatest Caravaggisti.
Judith Beheading Holofernes (1620) oil on canvas, Uffizi (best version of this scene).

Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-94)
Goldsmith-trained Florentine fresco painter, noted for his popular religious paintings.
Old Man with a Young Boy (1490) oil on panel, Louvre, Paris.

Giorgione (Giorgio da Castelfranco) (1477-1510)
Venetian genius, considered one of the pioneers of landscape painting.
The Tempest (1508) oil on canvas, Galleria dell'Accademia, Venice.
Sleeping Venus (1508-10) oil on canvas, Gemaldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden.

Giotto (1267-1337)
Proto-Renaissance artist, noted for Padua frescos and a new non-hieratic Byzantine style of art.
Scrovegni (Arena) Chapel Frescoes (1304-6) Padua, Italy.
- The Betrayal of Christ (Kiss of Judas) (1305)
- Lamentation of Christ (1305)

Thomas Girtin (1775-1802)
English watercolourist. Pioneer of English landscape painting, greatly admired by Turner.
• Berry Pomeroy Castle, Devon (1798) watercolour, Sothebys London.

Hugo Van Der Goes (1440–1482)
Netherlandish painter whose technique had a significant impact on painting in Florence.
Portinari Altarpiece (1475) Uffizi, Florence. (Outer panels executed in grisaille)

Jan Gossaert (Mabuse) (1478-1532)
Netherlandish painter transformed by his experience of Italian painting.
• Danae (1527) Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Matthias Grunewald (1475-1528)
Greatest German Northern Renaissance artist after Albrecht Durer.
Isenheim Altarpiece (1512-15) oil on panel, Musee d'Unterlinden, Colmar.

Francesco Guardi (1712-93)
Venetian painter noted for his Impressionistic watery landscapes of Venice.
• Grey Lagoon (1765) oil on canvas, Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan.
• A Venetian Capriccio (late 18th Century) oil on canvas, private collection.

Italian classical painter of the Bolognese School, noted for his dramatic lighting.
• Aurora (1622-3) Casino of the Villa Ludovisi, Rome.


Frans Hals (1582-1666)
First great portraitist of the Golden Age of Dutch painting (17th century).
• Banquet of the Officers of the St George Civic Guard (1616) Frans Halsmuseum.
The Laughing Cavalier (1625) oil on canvas, Wallace Collection, London.

Jan Davidsz de Heem (1606-83)
Leading Dutch Baroque still life painter.
• Still-Life with Lobster and Nautilus Cup (1634), Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart.
• A Table of Desserts (1640) Louvre.

Jacquemart de Hesdin (c.1355-1414)
Leading Flemish Painter famous for his International Gothic Illuminations.
• The Annunciation (1400) Petite Heures of the Duc de Berry, French National Library.

Nicholas Hilliard (1547-1619)
Greatest exponent of miniature painting at the court of Elizabeth I and James I.
• Portrait of Artist's Wife (1578) Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
• Young Man Among Roses (1587) Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

Meindert Hobbema (1638-1709)
Last of the great Dutch Realist landscape painters.
• The Avenue at Middelharnis (1689) National Gallery, London.

William Hogarth (1697-1764)
Pioneer of English figurative painting.
• The Rake's Progress (8 scenes) (c.1735) oils, Sir John Soane's Museum, London.
• Marriage a la Mode (6 scenes) (c.1743) oils, National Gallery, London.

Hans Holbein The Younger (1497-1543)
German painter active in Basel & London, revered for his Renaissance portraits of Kings, nobles, and members of the haut-bourgeoisie.
Portrait of Erasmus of Rotterdam (1523) National Gallery, London.
Portrait of Sir Thomas More (1527, Frick Collection, New York)
Portrait of a Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling (1527–28) National Gallery, London.
Portrait of the Merchant Georg Gisze of Danzig (1532) Gemaldegalerie, SMPK, Berlin.
Portrait of Thomas Cromwell (1532-4) National Portrait Gallery, London.
The Ambassadors (1533) National Gallery, London.
Portrait of Henry VIII (1536) Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid.

Pieter de Hooch (1629-84)
Important figure in Dutch Realist genre painting of the Delft School. Follower of Vermeer.
• Courtyard of a House in Delft (1658) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627-78)
Dutch painter, noted for domestic genre-paintings, and mastery of interior linear perspective.
• The Slippers (1662) Louvre, Paris.
• View down the Corridor (1662) Dyrham Park, UK.


Juan de Juanes (Vicente Juan Macip) (1510-79)
Foremost painter in Valencia during the later 16th century.
• The Last Supper (c.1560) Prado, Madrid.

Willem Kalf (1619-93)
Dutch Realist, one of the leading exponents of still life painting in 17th century Holland.
• Still Life with Chinese Porcelain Jar (1662) Gemaldegalerie, SMPK, Berlin.

See also our educational articles for students and teachers:
Art Evaluation: How to Appreciate Art
How to Appreciate Paintings

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Georges de La Tour (1593-1652)
French Baroque painter noted for his use of Tenebrism and dramatic lighting.
• The Penitent Magdalene (1640) Louvre, Paris.

Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830)
Portraitist, successor to Joshua Reynolds as Royal Portrait Painter to George III.
• Sarah Goodin Barrett Moulton: "Pinkie" (1794) Huntington Gallery, San Marino.

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
One of the greatest artists and inventors of the Italian Renaissance, famous for his "sfumato" method of shading.
Virgin of the Rocks (1484) oil on wood, Louvre, Paris.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) oil on panel, Czartoryski Museum, Krakow
Last Supper (1495-98) fresco, Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
Mona Lisa (1503) Louvre, Paris.

Limburg Brothers - Paul, Jan, Herman (c.1387-1416)
French miniaturists, specialists in book illustration for Philip II of Burgundy/Duc de Berry.
Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (1416) Musee Conde Chantilly.

Filippino Lippi (1457-1504)
Pupil of his father Fra Filippo Lippi and Botticelli.
• Virgin and Child with Saints (Madonna of the Otto) (1485) tempera, Uffizi, Florence.

Stephan Lochner (1400-51)
Finest 15th century artist of Cologne, noted for his altarpieces.
• "Three Kings Altarpiece" (c.1440) Cologne Cathedral.
• The Last Judgement (c.1440) Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne.
• Madonna of the Rose Bower (1448) Wallraf-Richartz-Museum.

Ambrogio Lorenzetti (c.1285-1348)
Leading member of the 14th century Sienese School.
Allegory of Good and Bad Government (1338-9) Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.

Claude Lorrain (1600-82)
French painter revered for his famous landscape paintings, typically featuring classical Italianate pastoral scenes. He was the first artist to introduce 'narrative' into the landscape genre.
• Landscape with the Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca (1648) oil, National Gallery, London.

Lorenzo Lotto (1480-1556)
Highly original Renaissance/Mannerist painter in Venice.
• The Annunciation (1534) Pinacoteca Communale, Recanati.


Andrea Mantegna (1430-1506)
Influential Renaissance artist noted for foreshortening and tromple l'oeil technique.
Camera degli Sposi frescoes (c.1474) Ducal Palace, Mantua.
• The Court of Ludovico II Gonzaga (c.1474) Ducal Palace, Mantua.
Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c.1490) oil on canvas, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan.

Simone Martini (1284-1344)
After Duccio, the greatest of all painters from the Siena School.
Annunciation Triptych (1333) egg tempera on panel, Uffizi Gallery, Florence.

Tommaso Masaccio (1401-28)
With Donatello and Brunelleschi, one of the greatest artists of the Florentine Renaissance.
Brancacci Chapel Frescoes (1424-8) Church of Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
Tribute Money (c.1425-6) fresco, Brancacci Chapel.
Expulsion from the Garden of Eden (c.1425-6) fresco, Brancacci Chapel.
The Holy Trinity (1428) fresco, Santa Maria Novella, Florence.

Hans Memling (1433-94)
Eclectic Netherlandish painter based in Bruges.
Last Judgment Triptych (1471) oil on panels, Muzeum Narodowe, Gdansk.
Donne Triptych (1480) oil on oak, National Gallery, London.

Michelangelo (1475-1564)
Arguably the greatest-ever painter and sculptor in the history of art.
Genesis Fresco (1508-12) Sistine Chapel Ceiling, Vatican, Rome.
Creation of Adam (God Passing the Spark of Life) (1511) part of the Genesis fresco.
Last Judgment Fresco (1535-41) Sistine Chapel Altar Wall, Vatican.
See also: Sistine Chapel Frescoes, Vatican, Rome.

Giovanni Battista Moroni (1524-78)
Mannerist painter best-known for his portraiture.
• Portrait of Don Gabriel de la Cueva y Giron (1560) Gemaldegalerie, Berlin.
• Portrait of a Man "The Tailor" (1570) National Gallery, London.

Le Nain Brothers: Louis (1600-48), Antoine (1599-1648) and Mathieu Le Nain (1607-77)
Family of French artists renowned for their genre painting of blacksmiths and the like.
• Blacksmith at His Forge (1640) Louvre, Paris.


Michael Pacher (1434-98)
Austrian/German Renaissance Tyrolese painter and sculptor, influenced by Mantegna.
• Altarpiece of the Church Fathers (1484) oil on wood, Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Parmigianino (1503-40)
Parma-born Mannerist painter/engraver, influenced by Correggio & Raphael.
Madonna with the Long Neck (1535) oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence.

Joachim Patenier (Patinier/Patinir) (1485-1524)
Underrated Netherlandish painter, innovative pioneer of narrative landscapes.
• Charon Crossing the Styx (1515-24) oil on panel, Prado, Madrid.
• The Rest on the Flight into Egypt (1515) oil on panel, Koninklijk Museum, Antwerp; and Prado.

Perugino (1450-1523)
Umbrian school Renaissance painter, master of oil painting, noted for Sistine Chapel frescoes.
Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter (1481-2) fresco, Sistine Chapel, Vatican.
• Pieta (1494-5) tempera, Uffizi, Florence.

Piero della Francesca (1420-92)
Umbrian painter, expert in linear perspective, one of the pioneers of the early Renaissance.
• The Baptism of Christ (1440-50) tempera on panel, National Gallery, London.
Flagellation of Christ (1460) oil and tempera, Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Urbino.
• Portraits of Federico da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza (1465-66) tempera, Uffizi.
• Brera Madonna (1472-4) oil on panel, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan.

Piero di Cosimo (1461-1521)
Eccentric, reclusive Florentine painter, best known for allegorical paintings.
• Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci (1482) tempera, Musee Conde, Chantilly.

Pietro da Cortona (1596–1669)
Quadraturista, famous for his High Baroque trompe l'oeil ceiling frescoes.
Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power (1633-39) Palazzo Barberini.

Jacopo Pontormo (1494-1556)
Pupil of Andrea del Sarto and Leonardo; influential Italian Mannerist artist.
• Cosimo de' Medici Il Vecchio (1518-19) oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence.
• The Deposition of Christ (1525-8) Capponi Chapel, Florence.

Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665)
Greatest French painter of the 17th century; one of the best history painters in the history of art; also revered for his polished 'academic' style of art.
• The Great Bacchanal With Woman Playing A Lute (1628) Louvre, Paris.
Et in Arcadia Ego (Arcadian Shepherds) (1637) Louvre, Paris.
Abduction of the Sabine Women (1638) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.
• The Holy Family on the Steps (1648) oil on canvas, National Gallery, Washington DC.

Andrea Pozzo (1642-1709)
Jesuit painter, architect; greatest exponent of quadratura illusionistic painting of the Baroque.
Apotheosis of St Ignatius (1694) ceiling fresco, San Ignazio, Rome.

Jean Pucelle (c.1290-1334)
French Gothic book painter noted for his exquisite illuminations.
Belleville Breviary Manuscript (c.1330) Paris National Library.
Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux (1324-28) The Cloisters, Metropolitan Museum of Art.


Quarton, Enguerrand (de Charenton) (1410-66)
Leading figure of the Provence school pf painting.
The Avignon Pieta (Pieta de Villeneuve-les-Avignon) (1454-6) Louvre, Paris.

Henry Raeburn (1756-1823)
Leading Scottish portraitist who painted direct onto canvas without sketches.
• The Rev Robert Walker Skating on Duddingston Loch (1784) oil, National Gallery of Scotland.

Raphael (Raffaello Santi) (1483-1520)
Probably the greatest painter of the High Renaissance.
Raphael Rooms (Stanze di Raffaello) (1508-20) Vatican, Rome.
School of Athens (1510-11) fresco, Raphael Rooms Vatican.
Sistine Madonna (1513) Gemaldegallerie, Dresden.
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (1514-15) Louvre, Paris.
Pope Leo X with Cardinals (1518) Uffizi, Florence.
Transfiguration (1518-20) Pinacoteca Apostolica, Vatican

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669)
Incomparable Dutch painter, one of the best portrait artists in the history of painting.
Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (1632) Mauritshuis, The Hague.
Night Watch (1642) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653) Metropolitan Museum, NY.
Bathsheba Holding King David's Letter (1654) Louvre Museum, Paris.
Portrait of Jan Six (1654) The Six Collection, Amsterdam.
• Jacob Blessing the Children of Joseph (1656) Gemaldegallerie, Kassel.
Conspiracy of Julius Civilis (1661) National Museum, Stockholm.
Syndics of the Cloth-Makers Guild (The Staalmeesters) (1662) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Suicide of Lucretia (c.1666) The Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
Jewish Bride (Isaac and Rebecca) (c.1665-8) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Return of the Prodigal Son (1666-69)

Joshua Reynolds (1723-92)
Arguably the greatest 18th century portrait painter in England.
• Portrait of Nelly O'Brien (1762) The Wallace Collection.
• Mrs. Abington (1771) Yale Center for British Art.
• Charles Burney (1781) National Portrait Gallery, London.

Jusepe 'Jose' Ribera (1591-1652)
Caravaggesque style Spanish religious painter, active in Naples.
• The Holy Trinity (1635) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
• Saint Paul the Hermit (1640) oil on canvas, Prado, Madrid.
• Boy with a Club Foot (1642) Louvre, Paris.

Francisco Ribalta (1565-1628)
Realist painter whose style paved the way for Velazquez, Ribera and Zurbaran.
• Christ Embracing St Bernard (1625-27) Prado.

Hyacinthe Rigaud (1659-1743)
French Rococo portraitist best-known for his portraits of the French royal family.
• Louis XIV (1701) Louvre, Paris.

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
Flemish painter, greatest Baroque artist of Northern Europe; known for fleshy female nudes.
Samson and Delilah (1609) oil on wood, National Gallery, London.
Descent from the Cross (Rubens) (1612-14) oil on wood, Cathedal of Our Lady, Antwerp.
The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (1618) Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
Judgement of Paris (1632-6) National Gallery, London. (cf. 1597-99 version, NG, London)

Andrei Rublev (c.1360-1430)
Finest exponent of icon painting in Russia.
Holy Trinity Icon (c.1411) Egg tempera on wood, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Jacob Van Ruisdael (1628-82)
Pupil of his uncle Salomon Van Ruisdael, one of the greatest Dutch landscape artists.
• The Mill at Wijk Near Duurstede (1670) oil on canvas, Rijksmuseum.
• Jewish Cemetery at Ouderkerk (1670) oil on canvas, Alte Meister, Dresden.

Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750)
Greatly influenced by Heem, Ruysch specialised in flower pictures and still life.
• Basket of Flowers (1711) Uffizi, Florence.
• Flowers, Fruit, and Insects (1716) Palazzo Pitti, Florence.

Salomon van Ruysdael (1602-70)
One of the greatest Dutch Realist landscape painters, active in Haarlem.
• River Landscape near Arnhem (1651) oil on panel, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.



Sebastiano del Piombo (1485-1547)
Italian painter who mixed Venetian colourism with the forms of the Roman school.
• The Raising of Lazarus (1517-19) National Gallery, London.

Harmen van Steenwyck (1612-56)
One of the leading exponents of vanitas painting in 17th century Dutch art.
• An Allegory of the Vanities of Human Life (1640) National Gallery, London.

Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
With John Singleton Copley, was the greatest exponent of portraiture in early America.
• George Washington (1796) Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York.


Theophanes the Greek (c.1340-1410)
Eastern Orthodox icon painter active in the Novgorod School of Icon Painting (1100-1500).
• Our Lady of the Don (1382-95) encaustic on panel, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

Giambattista Tiepolo (1696-1770)
Venetian genius of illusionistic fresco painting.
Wurzburg Residence Frescoes "Allegory of the Planets and Continents" (1750-53).
• Apollo Bringing the Bride (1751) ceiling fresco, Wurzburg Palace.
• Marriage of Frederick Barbarossa and Beatrice of Burgundy (1752) Wurzburg Palace.

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) (1518-1594)
Greatest 16th century Venetian painter after Titian.
• Adam and Eve (1550) oil on canvas, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice.
The Crucifixion (1565) oil on canvas, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice.
• Nativity (1579-81) oil on canvas, Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice.
• The Last Supper (1592-4) oil on canvas, St Giorgio Maggiore, Venice.

Titian (c.1477-1576)
Venice's finest painter and one of the greatest exponents of colorito in the history of art.
• A Man with a Quilted Sleeve (1509) National Gallery, London.
Assumption of the Virgin (1516-8) S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice.
• Pesaro Madonna (1519–1526) S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice.
Bacchus and Ariadne (1520-23) National Gallery, London.
Bacchanal of the Andrians (1523-5) Prado, Madrid.
Venus of Urbino (1538) Uffizi, Florence.
Pope Paul III with his Grandsons (1546) Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte.
• Venus and Adonis (1553) Prado Museum, Madrid.
• The Rape of Europa (1559-62) Isabella Stewart Gardener Museum, Boston.


Paolo Uccello (1397-1475)
Florentine Renaissance painter noted for his perspective and witty figurative canvases.
Battle of San Romano (1440) tempera, National Gallery, London.
Hunt in the Forest (1470) oil on panel, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574)
Mannerist painter, famous for his volume of biographies of Italian artists - Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors and Architects.
• The Wedding of Esther and Ahasuerus (1548) State Museum, Arezzo.

Diego Velazquez (Spanish, 1599-1660)
The greatest contributor to Spanish Painting of the 17th century.
Waterseller of Seville (1618-22) Apsley House, London.
Christ Crucified (1632) oil on canvas, Prado Museum, Madrid.
Surrender of Breda (Las Lanzas) (c.1635) Prado.
The Rokeby Venus (1647-51) National Gallery, London.
Portrait of Pope Innocent X (1650) oil on canvas, Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome.
Las Meninas (1656) oil on canvas, Prado.

Jan Vermeer (1632-1675)
Leader of the Delft school of Dutch Realism, he died in poverty and languished in obscurity until rediscovered in the 19th century.
Soldier and a Laughing Girl (c.1658) oil on canvas. The Frick Collection, New York.
The Milkmaid (c.1658-1660) oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Little Street (Street in Delft) (c.1657-1658) oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Young Woman with a Water Jug/Pitcher (c.1662) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Woman Holding a Balance (1662-3) National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.
Woman with a Pearl Necklace (c.1662-64) Staatliche Museum, Berlin.
Girl with a Pearl Earring (Head of a Girl with a Turban) (c.1665) Mauritshuis, the Hague.
The Art of Painting: An Allegory (c.1666-1673) Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
The Lacemaker (c.1669-1670) oil on canvas. Louvre, Paris.
Girl with a Red Hat (c.1666-1667) oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Paolo Veronese (1528-88)
Verona-born, active in the School of Venetian Painting (c.1450-1800) with Tintoretto.
Wedding Feast at Cana (1563) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.
Feast in the House of Levi (1573) oil on canvas, Academy Gallery, Venice.


Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
Greatest French painter of his era; a key figure in the Rococo style.
Pilgrimage to Cythera (1717) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.

Benjamin West (1738-1820)
First famous American artist, active in Britain, noted for his history paintings and portraits.
• Death of General Wolfe (1770) oil on canvas, National Gallery of Canada.

Roger van der Weyden (1400-1464)
The greatest Netherlandish painter of the mid-15th century.
Descent From the Cross (Deposition of Christ) (1435-40) oil on oak panel, Prado Museum.
• Seven Sacraments Altarpiece (1445) Koninklijk Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp.
• Lamentation Before the Tomb (1450) oil on panel, Uffizi Gallery.
• The Beaune Altarpiece of the Last Judgement (1450) Chapel at Hotel Dieu, Beaune.
• The Adoration of the Magi (The Columba Altarpiece) (1455) Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Richard Wilson (1713-82)
Father of English School of landscape painting.
• Destruction of Niobe's Children (1760) oil on canvas, Private Collection.

Emanuel de Witte (1616-92)
Dutch painter noted for his architectural paintings of church interiors.
Interior of the Oude Kerk Amsterdam (1669) oil on canvas, Private Collection.

Joseph Wright of Derby (1734-97)
Painter of English industrial age, master of Tenebrism; follower of Caravaggio.
An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump (1768) National Gallery, London.
• Vesuvius from Posillipo (1780) Yale Center for British Art.

Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1664)
Spanish painter, noted for his austere religious paintings and portraits.
• Still Life with Oranges and Lemons (1633) oil, Fondazione Contini-Bonacossi, Florence.
• Christ on the Cross (1627) oil on canvas, Art Institute of Chicago.
• Saint Luke as a painter, before Christ on the Cross (1639) Prado Museum.

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