Proto-Renaissance Artists
History & Paintings: Cimabue, Giotto, Duccio di Buoninsegna.

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Madonna and Child with Six Angels
(1300-05) National Gallery of Umbria,
and Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
By Duccio di Buoninsegna.

For details of pigments used by
14th century painters, see:
Renaissance Colour Palette.

For details of art movements
and styles, see: History of Art.
For the chronology and dates
see: History of Art Timeline.

Proto-Renaissance Artists (c.1250-1400)


Greatest Paintings of the Proto-Renaissance
Greatest Sculpture of the Proto-Renaissance


"Proto-Renaissance art" is a rather vague term which refers to painting and sculpture created in Italy between about 1280 and 1400. A transitional phase occurring within the wider era of Gothic art, the proto-Renaissance embraces all 14th century pre-Renaissance Painting around Florence - notably the work of Giotto - as well as the conservative Siena School of painting, led by Duccio di Buoninsegna and Simone Martini. Painting mediums included tempera and encaustic, as well as early forms of oils, while the most common applications included mural painting (mostly inside churches and chapels), and illuminated manuscripts. However, during the late 14th century, due to developments in Flanders, the tradition of miniature illuminations was superceded by larger-scale panel painting, used mostly in altarpiece art in churches and cathedrals. Proto-Renaissance plastic art consisted mostly of stone sculpture (mostly for churches), executed in a Gothic or semi-Gothic style.

What Comes Next?
• 1400-1490 "Early Renaissance art" centred on Florence
See: Early Renaissance artists like Donatello, Masaccio and Botticelli
• 1490-1530 "High Renaissance art" centred on Rome
See: High Renaissance artists like Michelangelo, Rafael and Leonardo
• 1430-1580 "Northern Renaissance" in the Netherlands and Germany
See: Northern Renaissance artists like Donatello, Masaccio and Botticelli

For a list of the most influential
images from the 15th century, see:
Greatest Renaissance Paintings.

For details of 3-D plastic artists
in marble, bronze and wood, see:
Renaissance Sculptors (1400-1600).

For information about the
"plastic arts" and 3-D works
in bronze, stone and clay,
along with biographies of
famous sculptors, see:
Sculpture Art.

For biographies and paintings
of the greatest artists in Europe
from the Renaissance to 1800,
see: Old Masters: Top 100.


Development of Proto-Renaissance Art

Painting in Italy during this period began by following the "maniera greca", the Greek style which was developed from Byzantine art at the beginning of the 13th century (c.1200): its centre was Pisa. This Greek style intially featured bold, linear compositions expressing powerful emotions, particularly in the Passion of Christ. Then at the end of the 13th century, Cimabue (1240-1302) took a fundamental step towards Renaissance art by introducing more realism into the figures of his frescos, an approach taken to a lesser degree by the Sienese painter Duccio di Buoninsegna (1255-1319), and to a much greater degree by the Florentine Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) in his frescoes for the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua. This increased naturalism played a significant role in Early Renaissance painting (1400-90). At the same time, the sculptors Nicola and Giovanni Pisano started to bring a previously unseen naturalism to stone sculpture. Later in the 14th century (trecento), Italian artists were influenced to some degree by the decorative idiom of the International Gothic style, and panel painting became more popular.


A-Z List of Proto-Renaissance Artists

See below for an alphabetical list of Proto-Renaissance artists. In addition to those from Italy, progressive painters and sculptures from the Netherlands, Spain and elsewhere, are also included:

Agostino Di Giovanni (flourished 1310-1347) Italian Sculptor (Siena)
Altichiero Da Zevio (c.1330-c.1390) Italian Painter (Verona)
Andrea Da Firenze (fl.1343-1377) Italian Painter (Florence)
Andrea Di Vanni D'andrea (c.1332-1414) Italian Painter (Siena)
Angelo Di Nalduccio (fl.1342-1389) Italian Sculptor (Siena)
Antonio Veneziano (fl.1369-1419) Italian Painter (Venice)
Arnolfo Di Cambio (c.1245-c.1310) Italian Sculptor
Avanzi, Jacopo (fl.1363-1384) Italian Painter (Padua)
Barna Da Siena (fl.Mid-14th Century.) Italian Painter (Siena)
Barnaba Da Modena (fl.1361-1383) Italian Painter
Baronzio, Giovanni (fl.c.1344-c.1362) Italian Painter (Rimini)
Bartolo Di Fredi (c.1330-c.1410) Italian Painter (Siena)
Bassa, Arnau (fl.late 14th Century.) Catalan Painter (Barcelona)
Bassa, Ferrer (fl.1324-1348) Catalan Painter (Barcelona)
Beauneveu, Andre (c.1330-1402) French Illuminator
Betto Di Geri (fl.1366–1402) Italian Goldsmith (Florence)
Bonino Da Campione (fl.1350-90) Italian Sculptor
Broederlam, Melchior (c.1355-1411) Flemish Painter (Burgundy)
Buffalmacco, Bounamico (fl.1315-1336) Italian Painter (Pisa)
Bulgarini, Bartolommeo (fl.1337-1378) Italian Painter (Siena)
Calendario, Filippo (c.1315-1355) Italian Sculptor (Venice)
Campin, Robert (Master of Flemalle) (c.1378-1444) Painter (Flanders)
Calendario, Filippo (d.1355) Venetian Sculptor
Capanna, Puccio (fl.1338-1348) Italian Painter (Assisi)
Cavallini, Pietro (fl.1273-1308) Italian Painter (Rome)
Cenni Di Francesco Di Ser Cenni (fl.1369-1415) Italian Painter (Florence)
Cenni Di Pepo (See Cimabue)
Cimabue (c.1240-c.1302) Italian Painter (Florence)
Cione, Andrea Di (See Orcagna)
Cione, Nardo Di (See Nardo Di Cione)
Cosma, Deodato Di (fl.Around 1300) Italian Sculptor (Rome)
Cosma, Giovanni Di (fl.1290s) Italian Sculptor (Rome)
Daddi, Bernardo (c.1280-1348) Italian Painter (Florence)
Dalle Masegne, Jacobello (c.1350-1409) Italian Sculptor (Emilia)
Domenico Di Agostino (c.1305-1369) Italian Sculptor (Siena)
Donato (Known 1360-1380) Italian Painter (Venice)
Duccio Di Buoninsegna (c.1255-1319) Italian Painter (Siena)
Embriachi, Baldassare Degli (fl.1390-1409) Italian Sculptor
Fouquet, Jean (1420-81) French Painter
Francesco Di Vannuccio (fl.1356-89) Italian Painter (Siena)
Gaddi, Agnolo (c.1350-1390) Italian Painter (Florence)
Gaddi, Taddeo (1300-1366) Italian Painter (Florence)
Gano Di Fazio (fl.1302-1318) Italian Sculptor (Siena)
Gentile Da Fabriano (1370-1427) Italian Painter
Gerini, Niccolo Di Pietro (See Niccolò Di Pietro Gerini)
Gherarducci, Don Silvestro Dei (1339-1399) Italian Illuminator (Florence)
Ghissi, Francescuccio (fl.1359-1395) Italian Painter
Giottino (1320/30-After 1369) Italian Painter (Florence)
Giotto Di Bondone (1267-1337) Italian Painter (Florence)
Giovanetti, Matteo (c.1300-1368) Italian Painter (Avignon)
Giovanni And Pacio Da Firenze (fl.1343-1345) Italian Sculptor
Giovanni D'agostino (c.1311-1348) Italian Sculptor (Siena)
Giovanni D'ambrogio (fl.1382-1418) Italian Sculptor (Florence)
Giovanni Da Balduccio (fl.1315-1349) Italian Sculptor
Giovanni Da Bologna (fl.1370-1390) Italian Painter
Giovanni Da Campione (fl.1340-1360) Italian Sculptor (Verona)
Giovanni Da Milano (fl.1350-69) Italian Painter
Giovanni Da Rimini (fl.1292-1309) Italian Painter (Rimini)
Giovanni Dal Ponte (1385-1438) Italian Painter (Florence)
Giovanni Del Biondo (fl.1356-1392) Italian Painter (Florence)
Giusto De' Menabuoi (c.1320-1391) Italian Painter (Padua)
Giusto Padovano (See Giusto De' Menabuoi)
Godefroyd, Etienne (fl.1300s) French Goldsmith (Naples)
Grassi, Giovannino De' (fl.1389-1398) Italian Illuminator (Lombardy)
Grifo Di Tancredi (fl.1271-1303) Italian Painter (Florence)
Guariento D'arpo (fl.1338-1368) Italian Painter (Padua)
Guglielmo, Fra (c.1235-1310) Italian Sculptor
Jacopo Del Casentino (c.1297-1349) Italian Painter (Florence)
Jacquemart de Hesdin (c.1355-1414) illuminator, miniaturist
Jean De Liège (fl.1361-1381) French Sculptor
Landini, Jacopo (See Jacopo Del Casentino)
Leonardo Di Ser Giovanni (fl.1358–1371) Italian Goldsmith (Florence)
Limbourg Brothers (fl.1390-1416) Flemish manuscript illuminations
Lorenzetti, Ambrogio (c.1290-1352) Italian Painter (Siena)
Lorenzetti, Pietro (c.1280-1348) Italian Painter (Siena)
Lorenzo Veneziano (fl.1356-1372) Italian Painter (Venice)
Luca Di Tomme (fl.1356-1389) Italian Painter (Siena)
Luca Spinelli, Spinello Di (See Spinello Aretino)
Maitani, Lorenzo (c.1255-1330) Italian Sculptor (Orvieto)
Mariotto Di Nardo (Before 1394-1424) Italian Painter (Florence)
Martini, Simone (1285-1344) International Gothic/ Sienese Painter
Martino Di Bartolommeo (fl.1389-1435) Italian Painter (Siena)
Maso Di Banco (fl.1320-50) Italian Painter (Florence)
Masolino (Tommaso di Cristofano) (1383-1440) Painter (Florence)
Mates, Joan (c.1370-1431) Catalan Painter
Memmi, Lippo (c.1285-c.1361) Italian Painter (Siena)
Monaco, Lorenzo (1370-1425) Painter (Siena/Florence)
Nardo Di Cione (fl.1343-66) Italian Painter (Florence)
Niccolo Di Buonaccorso (fl.1356-1388) Italian Painter (Siena)
Niccolo Di Pietro Gerini (fl.1366-1415) Italian Painter (Florence)
Niccolo Di Segna (fl.1331-1345) Italian Painter (Siena)
Niccolo Di Tommaso (fl.1350-1380) Italian Painter
Niccolo Semitecolo (fl.1353-1370) Italian Painter (Padua)
Oderisi, Pietro (fl.c.1260-80) Italian Sculptor
Orcagna (c.1308-c.1368) Italian Sculptor (Florence)
Palmerino Di Guido (fl.Around 1300) Italian Painter
Paolo Veneziano (Before 1300-c.1360) Italian Painter (Venice)
Parler, Peter (1330-1399) German Sculptor (Prague)
Pietro Da Rimini (fl.1300-1350) Italian Painter (Rimini)
Pisanello (Antonio Pisano) (c.1394-1455) Painter (Pisa)
Pisano, Andrea (fl.c.1290-1349) Italian Sculptor
Pisano, Giovanni (c.1250-1314) Italian Sculptor (Pisa)
Pisano, Nicola (fl.1258-1278) Italian Sculptor (Pisa)
Pisano, Nino (fl.c.1349-1360) Italian Sculptor (Pisa)
Pucelle, Jean (c.1300-c.1355) French Illuminator
Rublev, Andrei (c.1360-1430) Russian Painter (Moscow)
Scerpswert, Elyas (late 14th-Century) Netherlandish Goldsmith (Utrecht)
Segna Di Buonaventure (1298-1331) Sienese Painter
Serra, Pedro (fl.1363-1399) Catalan Painter (Catalonia)
Sassetta (Stefano di Giovanni) (c.1395-1450) Sienese Painter
Sluter, Claus (c.1350-1406) Netherlandish Sculptor (Dijon)
Spinello Aretino (c.1345-1410) Italian Painter
Starnina, Gherardo Di Jacopo (c.1354-1413) Italian Painter (Florence)
Stefano Di Sant'agnese (fl.1360-80) Italian Painter (Venice)
Taddeo Di Bartolo (1362-1422) Italian Painter (Siena)
Theophanes The Greek (c.1340-1410) Greek Painter (Russia)
Tino Da Camaino (c.1285-1337) Italian Sculptor
Tommaso Da Modena (c.1325-1379) Italian Painter (Modena)
Torriti, Jacopo (fl.c.1270-1300) Italian Painter (Rome)
Traini, Francesco (fl.1321-1363) Italian Painter (Pisa)
Ubriachi, Baldassare Degli (See Embriachi, Baldassare Degli)
Ugolino Di Nerio (fl.1317-1339/49) Italian Painter (Siena)
Ugolino Di Vieri (fl.1328-1380) Italian Goldsmith (Siena)
Ugolino-Lorenzetti (fl.1340-60) Italian Painter (Siena)
Vanni, Lippo (fl.1340-1375) Italian Illuminator (Siena)
Vitale Da Bologna (1289-1359) Italian Painter (Bologna)

Greatest Proto-Renaissance Paintings

A selection of the best paintings from the Late Gothic, International Gothic, Siena School and late 14th century styles.

Cimabue (Cenni di Peppi) (1240-1302)
Church of St Francis at Assisi Frescoes (c.1280 onwards).
Maesta (1280-85) Uffizi, Florence.
Madonna and Child Enthroned with Two Angels (1300) Palazzo Pitti, Florence.

Duccio Di Buoninsegna (1255-1319)
Maesta Altarpiece (1308-11) Siena Museo dell'Opera del Duomo.
Stroganoff Madonna (c.1300) Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337)
Scrovegni Chapel Frescoes (1304-6) Padua.

Simone Martini (1284-1344)
Maesta (1315) Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.
Frescoes in the lower church of S. Francesco at Assisi (1320-30).

Ambrogio Lorenzetti (Active 1319-48)
Effects of Good and Bad Government (1339) Palazzo Pubblico, Siena.

Melchior Broederlam (c.1350-1411)
The Dijon Altarpiece (1393-99) Museum of Fine Arts, Dijon.

Limburg Brothers - Paul, Jan, Herman (c.1387-1416)
Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (1416) Musee Conde, Chantilly.

Lorenzo Monaco (1370-1425)
Madonna Enthroned Between Adoring Angels (1400) Fitzwilliam Museum.
Madonna and Child (1413) National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Sassetta (Stefano di Giovanni) (c.1395-1450)
St Francis Altarpiece (1437-1444) Louvre, Paris; and National Gallery, London.

Jacquemart de Hesdin (c.1355-1414)
Annunciation (1400) (illuminated manuscript) Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris.

Enguerrand de Quarton (Charenton) (1410-66)
The Avignon Pieta (1454-6) Louvre, Paris.

Jean Fouquet (1420-81)
Melun Diptych (1450-55) Koninklijk Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp.
Portrait of Charles VII of France (1445-50) Louvre, Paris.

Greatest Proto-Renaissance Sculptures

Here is a short selection of the best plastic art from the period 1250-1400.

Nicola Pisano (1206-78)
Pulpit (1260) Marble, Pisa Cathedral
Pulpit (1265) Marble, Siena Cathedral

Andrea Pisano (1295-1348)
Door of Southern Portal (1330-6) Baptistery, Florence

Filippo Calendario (d.1355)
The drunkenness of Noah (1340-55) Doge's Palace, Venice

Claus Sluter (1350-1406)
Portal of Chapel (1389-94) Chartreuse of Champmol, Dijon.

• For more Renaissance architects, painters, goldsmiths and sculptors, see: Visual Artists: Greatest.
• For information about 14th century trecento painting, see: Homepage.

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