Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860)
Leading figure in Victorian architecture,
associated with Gothic and Greek Revival styles.
Royal College of Surgeons, London ((1834-6)
- UK Houses of Parliament, London (1839-52)
- Trafalgar Square, London (1840-5)
Gothic/Romanesque style architect of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
- Trinity Church, New York (1839-46)
- Bowdoin College Chapel & Library, Brunswick, Maine (1845-55)
Georges-Eugene Haussmann (1809-91)
Prefect under Napoleon III; transformed urban layout of Paris.
- Bois de Boulogne (1852)
- Avenue Foch (1854)
- Boulevard Haussmann (1860-70)
Influential Gothic style designer, restorer of medieval buildings. Influenced
some of the greatest architects of the nineteenth century.
- Restoration of Church of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, Vezelay (1840)
- Renovation of Notre Dame de Paris (1845)
- Restoration of Chateau de Pierrefonds, Oise (1858-85)
Highly influential Gothic Revival architect.
- Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC (1847-55)
- St Patrick's Cathedral, NY (1858-79)
Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903)
Leading American landscape architect.
- With Calvert Vaux, designed Central Park, NY (1858-76)
- Collaborated with HH Richardson on Boston and Albany Railroad stations.
- With Vaux and William Le Baron Jenney, planned Riverside, Illinois.
Calvert Vaux (1824-95)
Major early landscape architect in 19th century America.
- Central Park, NY (1858-76) (with Olmsted)
- Gallaudet College, Washington DC (1866)
- Prospect Park and Brooklyn Park system (1866-73)
Charles Garnier (1825-98)
French architect, worked with Viollete-le-Duc and Gustav Eiffel.
- Paris Opera (Palais Garnier) (1860-75)
- Monte Carlo Casino (1880-85)
Morris Hunt (1827-95)
Eminent US architect, known as the "Dean of American architecture".
- Neoclassical pedestal supporting the Statue
of Liberty (1886)
- Facade and Great Hall of the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, NY (1890-1902)
Responsible for arguably the greatest European architectural structure
of the 19th century - the Eiffel
Tower (1887-89) in Paris. Also engineered the Statue of Liberty
in New York harbour.
Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907)
A huge influence on American Architecture
and a founding member of the Chicago School of skyscraper architecture.
- Home Life Insurance Building, Chicago (1885).
- Ludington Building, Chicago (1891)
- First Leiter Building (1879)
- Second Leiter Building (1889-91)
George B. Post (1837-1913)
Leader in the design of early New York skyscrapers.
- Equitable Life Assurance Company Building, NYC (1868-70)
- Havemeyer Building, NYC (1891-2)
- New York Stock Exchange (1901-4)
Hobson Richardson (1838-86)
One of America's greatest 19th century architects; Romanesque/Gothic design
- Trinity Church, Boston (1872-77)
- Allegheny County Courthouse and Jail (1883-88)
- Marshall Field Wholesale Store, Chicago (1885-87)
Otto Wagner (1841-1918)
Viennese architect, noted for his ornamental designs.
- Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station, Vienna (1898)
- Imperial Post Office Savings Bank, Vienna (1904-6)
- St Leopold's Church, Steinhof Asylum, Vienna (1905-7)
Catalan architect, famous for Gothic/Art Nouveau biomorphic forms. His
unique style makes him one of the greatest architects of the late-19th
- Sagrada Familia, Barcelona (begun 1883)
- Casa Mila, Barcelona (1906-10)
- Park Guell, Barcelona (1900-14)
Pioneer of Beaux-Arts architecture, a lavish mix of Renaissance &
- Minnesota State Capitol, St Paul (1895-1905)
- Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, NYC (1901-1907)
- Woolworth Building, New York (1910-13)
Art Nouveau architect, noted
for glass/cast-iron ornamentation.
- Hotel Tassel, Brussels (1894)
- Hotel van Eetvelde, interior, Brussels (1895-98)
- Horta Museum (1898-1902)
Maria Olbrich (1867-1908)
Founder member of Vienna
Secession with Klimt and Josef Hoffmann.
- Secession Building, Vienna (1897-98)
- Wedding Tower, Darmstadt (1908)
One of the most famous Art Nouveau architects and designers.
- Castle Beranger: Entrance Gate, Paris (1894-98)
- Paris Metro: Entrance Gates, Glazed Canopies (1898-1905)
- Hotel Guimard, Paris (1912)
Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
One of the greatest American
Architects, and pioneer of Prairie School architecture; champion of
art and crafts.
- Robie House, Chicago (1908-10)
- Fallingwater, Bear Run, Pennsylvania (1936-37)
- Johnson Wax Administration Building, Racine, Wisconsin (1936-39)
- Price Tower, Oklahoma (1955)
- Samuel R Guggenheim Museum,
New York (1956-9)
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)
Architect, furniture designer, painter; arts
and crafts connection.
- Glasgow Herald Building (1893-5)
- Glasgow School of Art (1897-1909)
- Hill House, Helensburgh (1902-3)
See also: Glasgow School of
Founder of Deutscher
Werkbund; influenced Gropius, Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies Van der
- AEG Turbine Factory, Berlin (1908-9)
- German Embassy, St Petersburg (1911-12)
- Hoechst Dye Factory, Admin Building, Frankfurt-am-Main (1920-24)
Adolf Loos (1870-1933)
Influential modern architect, chief architect of the Vienna Housing Dept.
- Loos House, Vienna (1910-11)
- Muller House, Prague (1928-30)
- House for Dada artist Tistan Tzara, Paris (1927)
Burnham and Root (1873-91)
One of Chicago's top firms of architects, set up by Daniel Hudson Burnham
(1846-1912) and John Wellborn Root (1850-91), and a key influence
on the Chicago School of Architecture
- Montauk Building (Montauk Block), Chicago (1882-83)
- Rookery Building, Chicago (1885-87)
- Rand McNally Building, Chicago (1890)
- Monadnock Building (Monadnock Block), Chicago (1889-91)
Holabird & Roche (established 1880)
Innovative firm of Chicago architects, established by William Holabird
(1854-1923) and Martin Roche (1853-1927); now called Holabird &
- Tacoma Building (Chicago) (1889)
- Marquette Building (1895)
- Chicago Building (Chicago Savings Bank Building) (1904-5)
- Brooks Building (1909-10)
Adler and Sullivan (1880-99)
Firm of architects founded in Chicago by Dankmar Adler (1844-1900)
and Louis Sullivan (1856-1924). Part of the First Chicago School
- Auditorium Building, Chicago (1889)
- Wainwright Building, St. Louis, Missouri (1890-91)
- Schiller Theatre Building (Garrick Theater), Chicago (1891-93)
- Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1893-94)
- Prudential Building (Guaranty) Building, Buffalo (1894)
- Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894)
Founder of the influential Bauhaus
School of Design in Weimar.
- Fagus Factory, Alfeld on the Leine (1911-25)
- Bauhaus Complex, Desau (1925)
- Gropius House, Massachusetts (1937)
- Harvard University Graduate Center (1949-50)
- Pan American Building, NYC (1963) (now called the MetLife Building)
- John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building, Boston (1966)
Erich Mendelsohn (1887-1953)
German-born expressionist architect, influenced American Art
- Schocken Department Store, Stuttgart (1926)
- Columbus House, Berlin (1932)
- Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1919-24)
Corbusier (1887-1965) (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret)
Highly influential theorist/practitioner of modern functionalist design.
- Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France (19291931)
- Unite d'Habitation, Marseille (1946-52)
- La Tourette Monastery, Evreux-sur-l'Arbesle (1953-7)
- Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp (1951-4)
Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964)
Dutch architect, furniture-maker, member of De
Stijl minimalist group.
- Schroder House, Utrecht (1924)
- Sculpture Pavilion, Kroller-Muller
Museum, Otterlo (1955)
- Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (1963-73)
van der Rohe (1886-1969)
Founder of Second Chicago
School of International Style skyscraper design, and one of the greatest
architects of the twentieth century.
- Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) (Campus buildings) (c.1940-58)
- Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago (1948-51)
- Seagram Building, NYC (1958)
- Toronto-Dominion Bank Tower, Toronto (1967-91)
Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Finnish architect, designer; Nordic Classicism to International Style
- City Library, Vyborg, Russia (formerly Viipuri, Finland) (1927-35)
- Paimio Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Finland (1928-9)
- Villa Mairea, Noormarkku, Finland (1937-9)
- Finnish Church of the Holy Ghost, Wolfsburg, Germany (1960-2)
Owings & Merrill
Established in Chicago in 1936-9 by Louis Skidmore (1897-1962),
Nathaniel Owings (1903-84) and John O. Merrill (1896-1975).
One of the most accomplished exponents of skyscraper
architecture, SOM is now one of the largest firms of architects in
- Lever House, New York (1952)
- DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building, Chicago (1963)
- John Hancock Center, Chicago (1970)
- Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) Chicago (1974)
- Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China (1998)
- Trump International Hotel and Tower, Chicago (2009)
- Burj Khalifa Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2010)
- One World Trade Center (formerly Freedom Tower), New York (due 2013)
Louis Kahn (1901-74) (Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky)
Estonian-born architect, combined modernism with ancient forms.
- Salk Institute, Jolla, California (1960-66)
- National Assembly Building, Dhaka, Bangladesh (1961)
- Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1967-72)
Philip Johnson (1906-2005)
Highly influential US architect; champion of the International
Style of modernist architecture.
- Interior Design for Seagram Building, NYC (1958)
- AT&T Building, New York City (1978-84) (with John Burgee)
Oscar Niemeyer (b.1907)
Most famous Brazilian architect of the 20th century.
- Metropolitan Cathedral, Brasilia (1959-70)
- Palacio do Itamaraty, Brasilia (1962-70)
- French Communist Party Headquarters, Paris (1967-72)
Eero Saarinen (1910-61)
Finnish-born architect; one of the leading modernist designers in America.
- Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, St Louis, Missouri (1947-66)
- Kresge Auditorium at MIT, Cambridge, Mass (1953-55)
- TWA Flight Center, John F. Kennedy International Airport (1956-62)
Kenzo Tange (1913-2005)
Central figure in Japanese architecture of the 20th century.
- Hiroshima Peace Centre, Hiroshima, Japan (1949-55)
- Yamanashi Press and Radio Centre, Kofu, Japan (1967)
- Tokyo Olympic Stadium, Japan (1961-4)
Guangzhou-born champion of International Style modernist architecture.
- John F Kennedy Library, Boston (1965-79)
- John Hancock Building, Boston (1967-76)
- Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong (1982-89)
- Louvre glass pyramid, Paris (1983-98)
Jorn Oberg Utzon (1918-2008)
Danish architect, pupil of Alvar Aalto; exponent of "Additive Architecture".
- The Kingo Houses, Helsingor (1958)
- Sydney Opera House, Australia (1959-73)
- Bagsvaerd Church, Copenhagen (1968-76)
Sir James Stirling (1926-92)
Influential Champion of artistic rather than functionalist architecture.
- Leceister University Engineering Faculty (1959-63)
- Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart (1977-84)
- Tate Gallery, Liverpool (1984-88)
Venturi, Rauch & Scott-Brown (c.1960
Influential Philadelphia firm of postmodernist architects, established
by Robert Venturi (b.1925), Denise Scott Brown (b.1931)
and John Rauch (b.1930)
- Vanna Venturi House, Pennsylvania (1961-64)
- Guild House Retirement Home, Philadelphia (1961-66)
- Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College (1976)
- Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego (1996).
O. Gehry (b.1929)
Foremost postmodernist architect in America; pioneer of deconstructivism.
- California Aerospace Museum, Los Angeles (1982-84)
- Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles (1988-2003)
- Weisman Museum, Minneapolis (1990-93)
- Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
- Nationale Nederlanden Building, Prague (1992-97)
- Experience Music Project, Seattle (1999-2000)
See also: Postmodernist artists.
The greatest structural engineer and designer of 20th
century architecture, Khan invented tubular designs for skyscraper
towers. Partner in Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
- United States Air Force Academy, Colorado (1956-62)
- John Hancock Center, Chicago (1967-70)
- Willis (Sears) Tower, Chicago (1970-74)
- Haj Terminal, King Abdulaziz Airport, Jeddah (1972-81)
- One Magnificent Mile, Chicago (1983)
Aldo Rossi (1931-97)
Italian architect, developed Neo-Rationalism to reinvigorate classicism.
- Gallaratese Apartment Block, Milan (1969-74)
- St Cataldo Cemetery, Modena (1971-84)
- Cirque de Soleil House, Berlin (1997-2000)
Richard Rogers (b.1933)
Champion of formalist and constructivist architecture.
- Georges Pompidou Centre, Paris (1971-77) (with Renzo Piano)
- Lloyds of London (1978-86)
Richard Meier (b.1934)
Exponent of postmodernism, member of the
"New York Five"
- J Paul Getty Museum,
Los Angeles (1984-97)
- Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art (1987-95)
Sir Norman Foster (b.1935)
Champion of high-tech modernist architecture; use of glass.
- Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong (1979-86)
- Reichstag Dome, Berlin (1992-99)
- 30 St Mary Axe, London "the Gherkin" (1997-2004)
Renzo Piano (b.1937)
Italian architect, noted for his creative urban design commissions.
- Georges Pompidou Centre, Paris
(1971-77) (with Richard Rogers)
- Kansai International Airport Terminal, Osaka Bay, Japan (1991-4)
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