Greatest Architects
100 Best Designers and Their Finest Buildings (1400-onwards).


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US Capitol Building, Washington.
Old World Classical architecture
in a New World setting. Designed by
Charles Bulfinch, Benjamin Latrobe
and others.

100 Greatest Architects (c.1400-2000)


Renaissance Architects
Baroque Architects
Neoclassical Architects
19th Century Architects
20th Century Architects

For a short guide to the main forms of architectural design around the world, see: Architecture: History, Styles (3,000 BCE onwards).

Nationale Nederlanden Building,
Prague (1992-97) Designed by
Frank Gehry.

For a discussion of aesthetics,
and classification, see:
Definition of Art.
For the meaning of terms,
see: Architecture Glossary.

Is architecture a fine art, or
a type of applied art? For the
full story, see: Types of Art.


For millennia architecture has been the main form of monumental art. Until the Renaissance it was mostly religious art: both Ancient Egyptian architecture (3,000 BCE on), and Greek architecture (c.900-27 BCE) were expressions of great religious devotion. Then came Roman architecture - a very purposeful type of secular public art - after which followed the Dark Ages (c.400-800), when almost nothing was built. Stimulated by the medieval cultural revivals of the Carolingian and Ottonian royal courts, there then emerged the first continent-wide movement, known as Romanesque architecture, which duly evolved into the more flamboyant Gothic architecture. Aside from religion, the one thing that all these styles had in common, was that the architects, designers and master masons involved, were anonymous. With the exception of a small number of medieval artists, whose names we know, buildings erected prior to the era of Renaissance art were designed and built by unknown hands. (Notable exceptions include the great Egyptian pyramid architect Imhotep (27th century BCE) and the Roman Vitruvius (c.78-10 BCE), among others.) Our list therefore starts at the beginning of the 15th century, and has over 100 of the world's greatest architectural designers. Between them, they have designed many of the finest cathedrals, basilicas, abbey churches, chapels, palaces, municipal buildings, opera houses, libraries, universities, art galleries, museums, skyscrapers, airport terminals, banks and private houses. The styles range from Renaissance, Baroque, Neoclassicist, to Gothic Revival, Beaux-Arts, and Second Empire as well as International Style modernism and recent forms of postmodernism, such as Deconstructivism. In addition, our list includes a number of the most influential firms of architects.



Please note: all architects are listed chronologically, and each is followed by details of his greatest buildings.

Renaissance Architects

Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446)
The leading architect of the Florentine Early Renaissance.
- Duomo of Florence Cathedral (1420-36)
- Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence (1420-69)
See: Early Renaissance Artists.
See: Florence Cathedral, Brunelleschi and the Renaissance (1420-36).

Michelozzo di Bartolommeo (1396-1472)
Medici architect/sculptor noted for his engineering and design skills.
- Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Florence (1445-1460)
- Palazzo Vecchio, Florence (1450s) rebuilt/redesigned
- Rebuilding of Villa Medicea di Cafaggiolo, Mugello (begun 1452)

Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
The central figure in quattrocento architecture after Brunelleschi.
- Palazzo Rucellai, Florence (1446-51)
- Church of St Maria Novella, Florence (1458-71)
See: Renaissance in Florence.

Giuliano da Sangallo (1443-1516)
Most important architect during the transition to the High Renaissance.
- Church of Santa Maria delle Carceri, Prato (1485-1506)
- Palazzo Gondi, Florence (1490-94)
- Palazzo della Rovere, Savona (1496)

Donato Bramante (1444-1514)
Most important architect of the Italian High Renaissance.
- Church of St Maria delle Grazie, Milan (1492-98)
- Tempietto di San Pietro, Rome (1502)
See: Renaissance in Rome.

Michelangelo (1475-1564)
Revolutionary sculptor, painter and architect. Reinvigorated classicism.
- Laurentian Library, Florence (1524-71)
- Dome for Saint Peter's Basilica (1546-64)

Baldessare Peruzzi (1481-1536)
Important architect of the Italian Renaissance; pioneer of Mannerism.
- Villa Farnesina, Rome (1508-11)
- Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne, Rome (1532-6)

Raphael (1483-1520)
Foremost Renaissance designer: noted for decorative innovations.
- Church of St Maria, Chigi Chapel, Rome (1513)
- Palazzo Pandolfini (facade), Florence (1517)
See: High Renaissance Artists.

Michele Sanmicheli (1484-1559)
Bramante's most famous pupil; active in Verona.
- Petrucci Chapel in St Domenico, Orvieto (1516-24)
- Palazzo Grimani, Venice (1540-62)

Jacopo Sansovino (1486-1570)
Most important architect of the Venetian Renaissance.
- St Mark's Library, Venice (1536-88)
- Loggetta di San Marco, Venice (1537-40)

Mimar Sinan (c.1489-1588)
Chief Ottoman architect for Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, Murad III. Designed over 300 major buildings. Greatest architect of the classical period of Ottoman architecture. See also: Islamic Art.
- Sehzade Mosque, Istanbul (1544-48)
- Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul (1551-58)
- Selimiye Mosque, Edime (1569-75)

Giulio Romano (1499-1546)
Raphael's top pupil; worked for Federico Gonzaga.
- Palazzo del Te, Mantua (1525-34)
- Casa Romano, Mantua (1540)

Giacomo Barozzi Vignola (1507-1573)
Papal architect to Pope Julius III and the Farnese family.
- Villa Farnese, Caprarola, Near Rome (c.1560)
- Church of the Gesu (Jesuits) Rome (1568-73)

Andrea Palladio (1508-80)
Greatest figure in Venetian Renaissance architecture; noted for Classical proportions & symmetry.
- Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1562)
- Villa Capra (La Rotunda) Vicenza (1566-91)

Philibert de l'Orme (c.1510-70)
Succeeded the master-mason Gilles Le Breton (d.1553) as court architect to Francis I at the Fontainebleau School in France.

Giacomo della Porta (1533-1602)
Influenced by Michelangelo, Vignola; completed St Peter's Basilica.
- Church of the Gesu (Jesuits) Rome (cross-vault, dome, apse) (1568-84)
- St Peter's Basilica, Rome (completion of dome) (1588-90)
See also: Mannerist Artists.

Vincenzo Scamozzi (1548-1616)
Greatest architectural theorist of his day.
- Villa Pisani, Lonigo (La Rocca) (1576)
- Procuratie Nuove, Venice (1582-99)
- Church of St Giorgio Maggiore, Venice (1610)

Baroque Architects

Carlo Maderno (1556-1629)
One of the most significant Baroque architects.
- Facade & dome of Church of S.Andrea della Valle (1608 onwards)
- Facade of St. Peter's Basilica, Rome (1607-12)
- Palazzo Barberini (1628-33)
- Palazzo Mattei (1598–1616)
See also: Italian Baroque Artists.

Inigo Jones (1573-1652)
Highly influential English architect; first to promote the classical designs of Andrea Palladio in England.
- Queen's House at Greenwich, London (1619-35)
- Banqueting House in Whitehall, London (1622).

Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669)
Architect and master painter to Pope Urban VIII.
- SS. Luca e Martina, Rome (1635-64)
- St Maria in Via Lata, Rome (1658-62)
See also: Quadratura: illusionist architectural murals.

Bernini (1598-1680)
One of the greatest Baroque architects and sculptors.
- Cornaro Chapel, St Maria della Vittoria, Rome (1645-52)
- St Peter's Square, Vatican (1656-67)

Francois Mansart (1598-1666)
French classicist, gave his name to the Mansard roof.
- Chateau de Blois, Loire (1638)
- Val de Grace Church, Paris (1645)

Francesco Borromini (1599-1667)
Pupil of Carlo Maderno; architect competitor of Bernini.
- St Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome (1634-68)
- St Agnese in Agone, Rome (1653)

Alonso Cano (1601-1667)
First royal architect, painter to Philip IV - the "Spanish Michelangelo".
- Facade of Granada Cathedral (1667)
See also: Spanish Baroque Art (1600-1700) and Spanish Baroque Artists.

Louis Le Vau (1612-70)
Leading Baroque architect in France. Chief designer at Versailles.
- Saint-Sulpice (1646, Paris)
- Remodeling of Palace of Versailles, 1st stage (1669)
See also: French Baroque Artists.

Andre Le Notre (1613-1700)
Greatest French landscape architect, chief garden designer to Louis XIV.
- Gardens of Versailles Palace (1661 onwards)
- Gardens of the Chateau de Fontainebleau (1661 onwards)
- Jardin des Tuileries, Paris (1664)

Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723)
One of the greatest Baroque and early Neoclassical architects, founder of the Royal Society.
- Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford (1663)
- St Paul's Cathedral, London (1674-1710)
- Royal Observatory, Greenwich (1675)
- Old Royal Naval College, Greenwich (1696-1712)

Jules Hardouin Mansart (1646-1708)
Director-General of the King's Household; along with Charles Le Brun, Mansart was the chief architect at Versailles.
- Dome of Les Invalides (1679-91, Paris)
- Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles (1678)
- Grand Trianon (1687-8, Palace of Versailles)
See also: French Decorative Arts.
For furnishings, see: French Furniture (1640-1792).
For architects and craftsmen, see: French Designers.

Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656-1723)
Prominent Austrian Baroque architect, influenced by Bernini/Borromini.
- Stadtpalais (1695-8, Vienna)
- Church of St Charles (1716-30, Vienna)

Jakob Prandtauer (1660-1726)
Austrian Baroque architect; mixed local designs with Italian stucco vaulting.
- Melk Abbey (1702-36)
- St Florian Library, Linz (1708-26)

Johann Dientzenhofer (1663-1726)
Court architect to Lothar Franz von Schonborn and other prince bishops.
- Fulda Cathedral (1704-12)
- Parish Church of St Wencelaus, Litzendorf (1715-18)
See also: German Baroque Artists.

Andreas Schluter (1664-1714)
Berlin court architect/sculptor, noted for his Petrine art, St Petersburg.
- Berliner Stadtschloss (1702)
- Grand Palace and Monplaisir Palace, Peterhof (1713-14)
See also: German Baroque Art (1550-1750).

Sir John Vanbrugh (1664-1726)
English Baroque architect; assisted by Nicholas Hawksmoor.
- Castle Howard, Yorkshire (1712)
- Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire (1722)

Pedro de Ribera (1681-1742)
One of the most important Baroque architects in Madrid.
- Torrecilla Palace (1716–1731)
- Church of San Cayetano (1722-37)
- Ucles Monastery (1735)

Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753)
German Late Baroque architect and Rococo interior designer.
- Wurzburg Residenz (1732-41)
- Vierzehnhelligen, Bad Staffelstein (1742-74)
- Benedictine Abbey, Neresheim (1747)

Joseph Emanuel Fischer von Erlach (1693-1742)
Chief court architect of Charles VI, at Vienna. Focused on facade design.
- Kaiserlichen Court Library, Hofburg Palace (begun 1722)
- Catholic Cathedral in Timisoara (c.1732-40)

Hans Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1699-1753)
Court architect to Frederick the Great of Prussia; Baroque/Rococo designs.
- Potsdam City Palace (1744-52)
- Sanssouci Palace Potsdam (1745-47)

Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-1771)
Court architect to the Romanovs; introduced the Russian Baroque style.
- Smolny Cathedral (1748-57, St Petersburg)
- Winter Palace (1754-62, St Petersburg)

Neoclassical Architects

Jacques Germain Soufflot (1713-80)
Chief architect to Louis XV, director of Louvre redesign.
- Extension of the Hotel-Dieu, Lyon (begun 1741)
- Loge des Changes, Lyon (1751-2)
- Pantheon (formerly Church of St Genevieve) Paris (begun 1757)
See: Neoclassical Architecture.

Carl Gotthard Langhans (1732-1808)
Self-taught late-Baroque/early Neoclassical architect.
- Brandenburg Gate, Berlin (1789-91)
- Belvedere Schlosspark, Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin (1788-90)
- German National Theatre, Berlin (1800-02)

Claude Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806)
One of the leading 18th century Neoclassical architects in France.
- Cathedral of Saint-Germaine, Auxerre (1762-4)
- Royal Saltworks, Arc-et-Senans (1773-93)
- Chateau de Benouville (1770-80)

Jean Chalgrin (1739-1811)
Architect to Louis XVIII, reintroduced basilican style of church design.
- Church of Saint-Philippe-du-Roule, Paris (1764)
- Arc de Triomphe, Paris (begun 1806)
See: Neoclassical Art.

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Third US President; author of Declaration of Independence.
- Monticello House, Virginia (1768-1809)
- Virginia State Capitol, Richmond (1788)
- Rotunda Pavilion, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (1822-26)

Charles Cameron (1745–1812)
Chief architect of Tsarskoye Selo; pioneered Greek architecture in Russia.
- Pavlovsk Palace (1782-86)
- Alexander Palace, near St Petersburg (1812)
- Razumovsky Palace, Ukraine (1802)

John Nash (1752-1835)
Favourite architect of George IV. Influential in town-planning.
- Royal Pavilion, Brighton (1815-23)
- Buckingham Palace, London (1821-35)
- Cumberland Terrace, London (1828)
- Carlton Terrace, London (1827-32)

William Thornton (1759-1828)
Produced the original design for the neoclassical US Capitol building.
- Woodlawn Plantation, Fairfax County, Virginia (1805)
- Library Hall, Philadelphia (1789-90)

Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844)
Architect and town planner; Federal Style of Neoclassical architecture.
- Tontine Crescent, Boston (1793-94)
- Massachusetts State House, Boston (1795-97)
- Completion of US Capitol Building, Washington DC (1818-29)

Benjamin Latrobe (1764-1820)
First professional architect in America; Greek Revival architecture.
- Fairmount Waterworks, Philadelphia (begun 1799)
- Baltimore Basilica (1806-21)
- Renovation of US Capitol Building, Washington DC (1812-16)

Sir Robert Smirke (1780-1867)
British medieval/neoclassical architect. Popularized neoclassicism in UK.
- Covent Garden Theatre, London (1808)
- British Museum, London (begun 1823)
- General Post Office, London (1824-29)

Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841)
Along with Langhans, transformed the architecture of Berlin.
- Konzerthaus, Gendarmenmarkt, Berlin (1818-21)
- Tegel Palace (1821-4)
- Altes Museum (1823-30)


19th Century Architects

Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860)
Leading figure in Victorian architecture, associated with Gothic and Greek Revival styles.
Royal College of Surgeons, London ((1834-6)
- UK Houses of Parliament, London (1839-52)
- Trafalgar Square, London (1840-5)

Richard Upjohn (1802-78)
Gothic/Romanesque style architect of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
- Trinity Church, New York (1839-46)
- Bowdoin College Chapel & Library, Brunswick, Maine (1845-55)

Georges-Eugene Haussmann (1809-91)
Prefect under Napoleon III; transformed urban layout of Paris.
- Bois de Boulogne (1852)
- Avenue Foch (1854)
- Boulevard Haussmann (1860-70)

Eugene Viollet-le-Duc (1814-79)
Influential Gothic style designer, restorer of medieval buildings. Influenced some of the greatest architects of the nineteenth century.
- Restoration of Church of Sainte-Marie-Madeleine, Vezelay (1840)
- Renovation of Notre Dame de Paris (1845)
- Restoration of Chateau de Pierrefonds, Oise (1858-85)

James Renwick (1818-95)
Highly influential Gothic Revival architect.
- Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC (1847-55)
- St Patrick's Cathedral, NY (1858-79)

Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903)
Leading American landscape architect.
- With Calvert Vaux, designed Central Park, NY (1858-76)
- Collaborated with HH Richardson on Boston and Albany Railroad stations.
- With Vaux and William Le Baron Jenney, planned Riverside, Illinois.

Calvert Vaux (1824-95)
Major early landscape architect in 19th century America.
- Central Park, NY (1858-76) (with Olmsted)
- Gallaudet College, Washington DC (1866)
- Prospect Park and Brooklyn Park system (1866-73)

Charles Garnier (1825-98)
French architect, worked with Viollete-le-Duc and Gustav Eiffel.
- Paris Opera (Palais Garnier) (1860-75)
- Monte Carlo Casino (1880-85)

Richard Morris Hunt (1827-95)
Eminent US architect, known as the "Dean of American architecture".
- Neoclassical pedestal supporting the Statue of Liberty (1886)
- Facade and Great Hall of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY (1890-1902)

Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923)
Responsible for arguably the greatest European architectural structure of the 19th century - the Eiffel Tower (1887-89) in Paris. Also engineered the Statue of Liberty in New York harbour.

William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907)
A huge influence on American Architecture and a founding member of the Chicago School of skyscraper architecture.
- Home Life Insurance Building, Chicago (1885).
- Ludington Building, Chicago (1891)
- First Leiter Building (1879)
- Second Leiter Building (1889-91)

George B. Post (1837-1913)
Leader in the design of early New York skyscrapers.
- Equitable Life Assurance Company Building, NYC (1868-70)
- Havemeyer Building, NYC (1891-2)
- New York Stock Exchange (1901-4)

Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-86)
One of America's greatest 19th century architects; Romanesque/Gothic design
- Trinity Church, Boston (1872-77)
- Allegheny County Courthouse and Jail (1883-88)
- Marshall Field Wholesale Store, Chicago (1885-87)

Otto Wagner (1841-1918)
Viennese architect, noted for his ornamental designs.
- Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station, Vienna (1898)
- Imperial Post Office Savings Bank, Vienna (1904-6)
- St Leopold's Church, Steinhof Asylum, Vienna (1905-7)

Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926)
Catalan architect, famous for Gothic/Art Nouveau biomorphic forms. His unique style makes him one of the greatest architects of the late-19th century.
- Sagrada Familia, Barcelona (begun 1883)
- Casa Mila, Barcelona (1906-10)
- Park Guell, Barcelona (1900-14)

Cass Gilbert (1859-1934)
Pioneer of Beaux-Arts architecture, a lavish mix of Renaissance & Baroque.
- Minnesota State Capitol, St Paul (1895-1905)
- Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House, NYC (1901-1907)
- Woolworth Building, New York (1910-13)

Victor Horta (1861-1947)
Art Nouveau architect, noted for glass/cast-iron ornamentation.
- Hotel Tassel, Brussels (1894)
- Hotel van Eetvelde, interior, Brussels (1895-98)
- Horta Museum (1898-1902)

Joseph Maria Olbrich (1867-1908)
Founder member of Vienna Secession with Klimt and Josef Hoffmann.
- Secession Building, Vienna (1897-98)
- Wedding Tower, Darmstadt (1908)

Hector Guimard (1867-1942)
One of the most famous Art Nouveau architects and designers.
- Castle Beranger: Entrance Gate, Paris (1894-98)
- Paris Metro: Entrance Gates, Glazed Canopies (1898-1905)
- Hotel Guimard, Paris (1912)

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
One of the greatest American Architects, and pioneer of Prairie School architecture; champion of art and crafts.
- Robie House, Chicago (1908-10)
- Fallingwater, Bear Run, Pennsylvania (1936-37)
- Johnson Wax Administration Building, Racine, Wisconsin (1936-39)
- Price Tower, Oklahoma (1955)
- Samuel R Guggenheim Museum, New York (1956-9)

Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)
Architect, furniture designer, painter; arts and crafts connection.
- Glasgow Herald Building (1893-5)
- Glasgow School of Art (1897-1909)
- Hill House, Helensburgh (1902-3)
See also: Glasgow School of Painting.

Peter Behrens (1868-1940)
Founder of Deutscher Werkbund; influenced Gropius, Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe.
- AEG Turbine Factory, Berlin (1908-9)
- German Embassy, St Petersburg (1911-12)
- Hoechst Dye Factory, Admin Building, Frankfurt-am-Main (1920-24)

Adolf Loos (1870-1933)
Influential modern architect, chief architect of the Vienna Housing Dept.
- Loos House, Vienna (1910-11)
- Muller House, Prague (1928-30)
- House for Dada artist Tistan Tzara, Paris (1927)

Burnham and Root (1873-91)
One of Chicago's top firms of architects, set up by Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912) and John Wellborn Root (1850-91), and a key influence on the Chicago School of Architecture (1880-1910).
- Montauk Building (Montauk Block), Chicago (1882-83)
- Rookery Building, Chicago (1885-87)
- Rand McNally Building, Chicago (1890)
- Monadnock Building (Monadnock Block), Chicago (1889-91)

Holabird & Roche (established 1880)
Innovative firm of Chicago architects, established by William Holabird (1854-1923) and Martin Roche (1853-1927); now called Holabird & Root.
- Tacoma Building (Chicago) (1889)
- Marquette Building (1895)
- Chicago Building (Chicago Savings Bank Building) (1904-5)
- Brooks Building (1909-10)

Adler and Sullivan (1880-99)
Firm of architects founded in Chicago by Dankmar Adler (1844-1900) and Louis Sullivan (1856-1924). Part of the First Chicago School of architecture.
- Auditorium Building, Chicago (1889)
- Wainwright Building, St. Louis, Missouri (1890-91)
- Schiller Theatre Building (Garrick Theater), Chicago (1891-93)
- Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1893-94)
- Prudential Building (Guaranty) Building, Buffalo (1894)
- Chicago Stock Exchange Building (1894)

Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
Founder of the influential Bauhaus School of Design in Weimar.
- Fagus Factory, Alfeld on the Leine (1911-25)
- Bauhaus Complex, Desau (1925)
- Gropius House, Massachusetts (1937)
- Harvard University Graduate Center (1949-50)
- Pan American Building, NYC (1963) (now called the MetLife Building)
- John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building, Boston (1966)

20th Century Architects

Erich Mendelsohn (1887-1953)
German-born expressionist architect, influenced American Art Deco style.
- Schocken Department Store, Stuttgart (1926)
- Columbus House, Berlin (1932)
- Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1919-24)

Le Corbusier (1887-1965) (Charles-Edouard Jeanneret)
Highly influential theorist/practitioner of modern functionalist design.
- Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France (1929–1931)
- Unite d'Habitation, Marseille (1946-52)
- La Tourette Monastery, Evreux-sur-l'Arbesle (1953-7)
- Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp (1951-4)

Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964)
Dutch architect, furniture-maker, member of De Stijl minimalist group.
- Schroder House, Utrecht (1924)
- Sculpture Pavilion, Kroller-Muller Museum, Otterlo (1955)
- Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam (1963-73)

Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969)
Founder of Second Chicago School of International Style skyscraper design, and one of the greatest architects of the twentieth century.
- Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) (Campus buildings) (c.1940-58)
- Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago (1948-51)
- Seagram Building, NYC (1958)
- Toronto-Dominion Bank Tower, Toronto (1967-91)

Alvar Aalto (1898-1976)
Finnish architect, designer; Nordic Classicism to International Style Modernism.
- City Library, Vyborg, Russia (formerly Viipuri, Finland) (1927-35)
- Paimio Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Finland (1928-9)
- Villa Mairea, Noormarkku, Finland (1937-9)
- Finnish Church of the Holy Ghost, Wolfsburg, Germany (1960-2)

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
Established in Chicago in 1936-9 by Louis Skidmore (1897-1962), Nathaniel Owings (1903-84) and John O. Merrill (1896-1975). One of the most accomplished exponents of skyscraper architecture, SOM is now one of the largest firms of architects in the world.
- Lever House, New York (1952)
- DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building, Chicago (1963)
- John Hancock Center, Chicago (1970)
- Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) Chicago (1974)
- Jin Mao Building, Shanghai, China (1998)
- Trump International Hotel and Tower, Chicago (2009)
- Burj Khalifa Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2010)
- One World Trade Center (formerly Freedom Tower), New York (due 2013)

Louis Kahn (1901-74) (Itze-Leib Schmuilowsky)
Estonian-born architect, combined modernism with ancient forms.
- Salk Institute, Jolla, California (1960-66)
- National Assembly Building, Dhaka, Bangladesh (1961)
- Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1967-72)

Philip Johnson (1906-2005)
Highly influential US architect; champion of the International Style of modernist architecture.
- Interior Design for Seagram Building, NYC (1958)
- AT&T Building, New York City (1978-84) (with John Burgee)

Oscar Niemeyer (b.1907)
Most famous Brazilian architect of the 20th century.
- Metropolitan Cathedral, Brasilia (1959-70)
- Palacio do Itamaraty, Brasilia (1962-70)
- French Communist Party Headquarters, Paris (1967-72)

Eero Saarinen (1910-61)
Finnish-born architect; one of the leading modernist designers in America.
- Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, St Louis, Missouri (1947-66)
- Kresge Auditorium at MIT, Cambridge, Mass (1953-55)
- TWA Flight Center, John F. Kennedy International Airport (1956-62)

Kenzo Tange (1913-2005)
Central figure in Japanese architecture of the 20th century.
- Hiroshima Peace Centre, Hiroshima, Japan (1949-55)
- Yamanashi Press and Radio Centre, Kofu, Japan (1967)
- Tokyo Olympic Stadium, Japan (1961-4)

I.M.Pei (b.1917)
Guangzhou-born champion of International Style modernist architecture.
- John F Kennedy Library, Boston (1965-79)
- John Hancock Building, Boston (1967-76)
- Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong (1982-89)
- Louvre glass pyramid, Paris (1983-98)

Jorn Oberg Utzon (1918-2008)
Danish architect, pupil of Alvar Aalto; exponent of "Additive Architecture".
- The Kingo Houses, Helsingor (1958)
- Sydney Opera House, Australia (1959-73)
- Bagsvaerd Church, Copenhagen (1968-76)

Sir James Stirling (1926-92)
Influential Champion of artistic rather than functionalist architecture.
- Leceister University Engineering Faculty (1959-63)
- Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart (1977-84)
- Tate Gallery, Liverpool (1984-88)

Venturi, Rauch & Scott-Brown (c.1960 onwards)
Influential Philadelphia firm of postmodernist architects, established by Robert Venturi (b.1925), Denise Scott Brown (b.1931) and John Rauch (b.1930)
- Vanna Venturi House, Pennsylvania (1961-64)
- Guild House Retirement Home, Philadelphia (1961-66)
- Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College (1976)
- Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego (1996).

Frank O. Gehry (b.1929)
Foremost postmodernist architect in America; pioneer of deconstructivism.
- California Aerospace Museum, Los Angeles (1982-84)
- Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles (1988-2003)
- Weisman Museum, Minneapolis (1990-93)
- Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1991-97)
- Nationale Nederlanden Building, Prague (1992-97)
- Experience Music Project, Seattle (1999-2000)
See also: Postmodernist artists.

Fazlur Khan (1929-82)
The greatest structural engineer and designer of 20th century architecture, Khan invented tubular designs for skyscraper towers. Partner in Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.
- United States Air Force Academy, Colorado (1956-62)
- John Hancock Center, Chicago (1967-70)
- Willis (Sears) Tower, Chicago (1970-74)
- Haj Terminal, King Abdulaziz Airport, Jeddah (1972-81)
- One Magnificent Mile, Chicago (1983)

Aldo Rossi (1931-97)
Italian architect, developed Neo-Rationalism to reinvigorate classicism.
- Gallaratese Apartment Block, Milan (1969-74)
- St Cataldo Cemetery, Modena (1971-84)
- Cirque de Soleil House, Berlin (1997-2000)

Richard Rogers (b.1933)
Champion of formalist and constructivist architecture.
- Georges Pompidou Centre, Paris (1971-77) (with Renzo Piano)
- Lloyds of London (1978-86)

Richard Meier (b.1934)
Exponent of postmodernism, member of the "New York Five"
- J Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles (1984-97)
- Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art (1987-95)

Sir Norman Foster (b.1935)
Champion of high-tech modernist architecture; use of glass.
- Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters, Hong Kong (1979-86)
- Reichstag Dome, Berlin (1992-99)
- 30 St Mary Axe, London "the Gherkin" (1997-2004)

Renzo Piano (b.1937)
Italian architect, noted for his creative urban design commissions.
- Georges Pompidou Centre, Paris (1971-77) (with Richard Rogers)
- Kansai International Airport Terminal, Osaka Bay, Japan (1991-4)


• For the chronology of architecture, see: History of Art Timeline.
• For more about the greatest building designers, see: Homepage.

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