Impressionist Painters
Artists of Impressionism in Europe, America, Australia.

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Gare St Lazare (1877)
Musee d'Orsay, Paris.
By Claude Monet.

Impressionist Painters (c.1840-1920)


The Story of the First Impressionist Painters
- The Liberation of Light
- Influences that Shaped the Impressionists
- Impressionist Group Dissolves
French Impressionists
German Impressionists
Dutch Impressionists
British Impressionists
Best Impressionist Paintings

Going Home (1889)
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra.
By the British-Australian Impressionist
Charles Conder.

Annecy Lake (1896)
Courtauld Institute Galleries.
By Paul Cezanne. One of the
greatest modern paintings.

For details of colour pigments
used by Impressionist painters, see:
Nineteenth Century Colour palette.


Impressionism was the most important art movement of the 19th century, and its impact extended throughout the world until well into the 20th century. The name derives from a painting exhibited by Monet in 1874, catalogued as "Impression Sunrise". There is no precise definition of the style. Exponents seek to capture the visual impression of a scene, rather than its objective characteristics, and focus on depicting the instantaneous effect of light. (For more, see: Characteristics of Impressionist Painting 1870-1910.)

In Monet's words, an Impressionist painting is "a spontaneous work, rather than a calculated one." This may be somewhat idealistic, as many artists eventually forsook plein-air painting in favour of studio work. Even so, there is a hurried, almost unfinished look about many Impressionist masterpieces.

Although the movement began quite inauspiciously in Paris, and initially involved only a small number of painters - who exhibited as a group only seven times (1874-82) - it rapidly attracted the efforts of other Parisian artists (many of whom eventually turned to Post-Impressionism or Expressionism) before going on to influence artists across the globe - from Philadelphia to Sydney.

The Story of the First Impressionist Painters

The term 'Impressionism' was first used mockingly, by Louis Leroy (1812-1885), to describe the 1874 exhibition of a new style of French painting by a new generation of French painters - Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, Sisley, Degas and others. Soon the artists themselves accepted the title and Impressionism lost its derisive implications and came to be regarded and praised as one of the most important art movements of the 19th century. The general opinion of the 1874 exhibition was that if you "soil three-quarters of a canvas with black and white, rub the rest with yellow, distribute haphazardly some red and blue spots, you'll obtain an impression". One of the art critics, less harsh but more revealing of their work, said "They are Impressionists in the sense that they render not the landscape but the sensation produced by the landscape".

History of Impressionism
Origins and Influences
How Impressionism started
Early History
First developments
Father of Modernism
Leading Impressionist
Other main contributors
Monet & Pissarro in London
Finalising the new style
Painting Developments
How Impressionism evolved
Impressionist Exhibitions
Main art shows in Paris
Group Splits
Impressionists dissolve
Legacy of Impressionism
Importance of Impressionist art

For details of colour pigments
used by Impressionist painters
in oils and watercolours, see:
Nineteenth Century Colour palette.

For details of the best modern
painters, since 1800, see:
Famous Painters (1830-2010)

For a list of the Top 10 painters/
sculptors: Best Artists of All Time.

The Liberation of Light

The daring aims shared by the group included the immediate and visually true rendering of a momentary scene; the painting of the whole work in the open air (which entailed abandoning the traditional sequence of preparatory sketching and carefully worked final painting); the use of pure colour on the canvas instead of first being mixed on the palette; the technique, influenced by recent scientific studies, of depicting light in terms of its component colours; the use of small strokes and dabs of brightly-coloured paint and, above all, the use of light and colour as the sole means of unifying a picture, as opposed to the traditional method of building up a painting by outline and modelling with light and shade.

Taken together, these aims represented a whole revaluation of art. And yet, as with so many 'revolutionary' artistic movements, their roots can be found in what went before. The emphasis on painting direct from nature led on from the stress placed on factual data and direct observation by the Realist artists and the followers of the philosophy of Positivism. The Impressionists' use of colour owed much to the findings of the French scientist Chevreul, who observed that juxtaposed colour pigments alter each other and that, when seen from a distance, two different colours placed side by side blend into a single tone. Theories such as these led eventually to the Impressionist practice of placing pure colours on the canvas for the spectator's eye to fuse from a distance.

But this technique had actually been foreshadowed by earlier painters. Eugene Delacroix (in France) and both John Constable and Richard Parkes Bonington (in England), all of whom influenced the Impressionists. In his journal, Delacroix remarks: "Constable says that the superiority of the greens in his meadows is due to the fact that they are made up of a large number of different (juxtaposed not mixed) greens. What gives a lack of intensity and life to the ordinary run of landscape painters is that they do it with a uniform tint." Delacroix himself came to reject earth tones and use pure, unmixed colours and he anticipated the characteristic brushwork of the Impressionists when he wrote: "It is well if the brush strokes are not actually fused. They fuse naturally at a certain distance by the law of sympathy that has associated them. The colour thus gains in energy and freshness.' These comments usefully outline the Impressionists' greatest contribution to art - the liberation of light and colour and the attempt to create the sense of the immediate, visual impact of an image.

Influences that Shaped the Impressionists

As a unified movement, Impressionism is really confined to the 1870s. After this decade, the artists developed along more individual paths. The 1860s were formative years for all the future Impressionist painters, during which a variety of influences shaped their ideas. These influences can best be seen in the career of Claude Monet (1840-1926), the leading member of the group.

The painter whom Monet most respected was Edouard Manet (1832-83), who was, during the 1860s, an extremely controversial figure: his "Dejeuner sur l'Herbe" (1863) received outraged criticism when it was exhibited at the new Salon des Refuses (established for showing works rejected by the official Salon). The very qualities for which he was reviled by the art critics - spontaneous brushwork, elimination of half-tones, lack of smooth modelling and disregard of meticulous transition from light to dark - endeared him to the future Impressionists. Inspired by Manet's painting, Monet himself began his own "Dejeuner sur l'Herbe", spending several months sketching in the forest of Fontainebleau. His intention, however, was different from Manet, for he wanted to paint his picnic party as they appeared in a fleeting moment of sunlight. In the same year as he finished this, 1866, Monet painted "Women in the Garden", with which he began his practice of painting works entirely out of doors (en plein air).

Monet had, early on in his career, been introduced to plein-air painting by an artist friend Eugene Boudin (1824-98), while living in Le Havre. From Boudin, Monet derived a fascination for capturing fleeting atmospheric effects, and his paintings of the harbours and beaches of Normandy are concerned largely with the evocation of the play of light on surfaces.

Monet's developing interest in optical effects are further seen in the series of snow scenes which he painted in and around Honfleur during the early 1860s. By this time his style was being modified by his knowledge of Japanese art. Japanese colour woodcuts were beginning to be known in Europe from the mid-nineteenth century, when Japan entered into trade relations with it. Prints of these woodcuts were often used as wrappings and padding for tea, and could be bought cheaply at tea-shops. Many artists in France from the late 1850s onwards collected these prints; they saw in Japanese art a way of revitalizing their own style. Several motifs of this "Japonism" corresponded with effects currently being explored in their own environment, for example the cut-off composition, with figures seen from unexpected angles or partly obscured (also a feature of photography), the use of black outline, of large flat areas of colour and of dramatic perspective foreshortening. This last feature was adopted by Monet in his "Road near Honfleur in Snow" (1867) as it tends to make the picture's impact one of an impression received in a momentary glance.

After this, perspective foreshortening was used repeatedly by Impressionist painters, in particular Camille Pissarro (1831-1903) and Alfred Sisley (1839-99) for road scenes, and by Manet again for his river views. Different aspects of Japanese art were taken up by different painters according to their interests: Edgar Degas (1834-1917), more interested in design and drawing than the main Impressionists, was particularly influenced by the uncluttered nature of Japanese art and by the possibilities of the cut-off composition, which he explored most fully in his numerous studies of ballet dancers.

For Manet the attraction of Japanese art lay in its use of colour; his work during the 1860s, with its use of flat areas of bright colour, reflects his knowledge of Japanese prints. Although both Manet and Degas were both, at some stage of their career, influenced by the techniques and findings of the Impressionists, they both held themselves somewhat aloof from the main group - separated by different social backgrounds, by age, by a greater sophistication of outlook, and by different artistic aims.

The growing interest in photography, too, played an important part in Monet's conception of painting and in his artistic style. His depiction of pedestrians in his city scene "Boulevard des Capucines" (1873), in which the people are distorted into mere black dabs, echoes exactly the effects found in contemporary photographs taken on glass plates, which tend to blur moving forms. Sometimes actual photographs were used by the Impressionists; at other times, photography enabled objects and scenes to be viewed from unexpected angles.

Monet was the link between the different members of the group. He had met Renoir and Sisley in Paris, while studying at the studio of Charles Gleyre (1806-74), and had befriended Pissarro and Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) at the Academie Suisse, also in Paris. From 1864, these artists were all working in the Forest of Fontainebleau either independently or together.

Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) - although influenced by Monet in his use of bright, flat colour - was more like Manet in his responsiveness to the art of the past. And for him, as for Manet, it is the human figure that remains the most fascinating subject of artistic expression. Throughout the 1860s, Renoir tried to maintain a balance between certain academic standards and the pictorial advances he saw being carried out around him. In its use of deep colour and textured pigment his work at Fontainebleau shows the influence of Gustave Courbet. Gradually however - as a result of continual painting out of doors and of Monet's influence - his colours became lighter and his handling freer. But his interest in the human figure dominates even when he is closest to Monet in theme and style.

In 1868 he and Monet worked together on the River Seine and their individual interpretations of a scene at La Grenouillere (a popular bathing place on the River Seine) reveal their contrasting interests - Renoir's in social scenes and human figures, Monet's in the effects of light and water. It was here that Renoir and Monet discovered that shadows are not brown or black (as they were traditionally depicted) but are coloured by their surroundings. They accordingly rejected blacks, browns and earth colours more and more from their palettes.

Along with Monet, it was Pissarro and Sisley who were perhaps the most faithful to Impressionism. Pissarro, though much influenced by Monet, reveals a far greater respect for the underlying structure of a painting and for the solid, durable aspects of the earth and countryside. Sisley, almost exclusively focused on landscape painting, was heavily influenced by Monet in his later works executed during the 1870s. But his landscapes, for example "Misty Morning" (1874), and in particular his snowscapes, retain a sense of melancholy and delicacy wholly personal to his art.

During the mid 1870s, the Impressionist style reached its peak. The artists associated with it were working in their most characteristic style of small, separate brush strokes, and small dabs of pure colour applied direct to a white primed canvas, with no prior mixing. These Impressionist paintings transmit not only a sense of liberation in style, but a true enjoyment of life, their most typical subjects being breakfasts, picnics, promenades and boating trips, and scenes of nature in different moods and in different seasons.

Since 1872 Monet had been living at Argenteuil on the River Seine, where he had fitted out a floating studio, from which he could study and paint the interaction of light and water. Here he painted with Renoir, and in the summer of 1874 they were joined by Manet, whose parents owned a property nearby. This summer marked the height of Manet's involvement with Impressionism: his colours became lighter, his technique looser and he came increasingly to value the experience of working out of doors. His painting "Monet Working in his Boat" (1874) acts as a tribute to this phase and conveys something of Manet's new-found delight in the spontaneous rendering of the physical aspects of a scene. But although the newspaper critics insisted on talking of the younger artists as "Manet's gang", Manet himself never wanted to be identified with the Impressionists and refused to take part in any of their exhibitions. Organized by Degas, the first of these Impressionist exhibitions took place in 1874 and was vilified by the critics and the public alike.

Impressionist Group Dissolves

The group itself, although continuing to hold exhibitions until 1886 had, by the end of the 1870s, begun to split up. Monet left Argenteuil in 1876 and two years later settled at Vetheuil, further from Paris. He began the series of paintings in which he explored one subject under different conditions and times of day: these included the Poplars and the Haystacks, Rouen cathedral and the Water-lilies - the last theme being painted right up to his death in 1926. They show an increasing dissolution of form and sensuous rendering of light and colour. Renoir, always inclined towards academic art, returned to his basic preoccupation with the human figure and his later work shows an increased attention to form, contour and smoothness of surface. Pissarro became involved with the colour-theories of the Neo-Impressionism group, led by Georges Seurat, leaving only Sisley of the original group as a pure Impressionist to the end of his life. Thus the 1880s witnessed the original group of Impressionists following their independent styles, and the rise of a new generation - Cezanne, Gauguin and Van Gogh - who, with the Impressionist innovations as their starting point, were to forge a new and more radical art which would transform painting in the 20th century.


French Impressionists

The Top 8

Paul Cezanne (1839-1906)
Failed the entrance exams to the French Academy of Fine Arts. Befriended by Pissarro, he exhibited with the group only twice (1874 and 1877) before pursuing his own style of Post-Impressionism.
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Unlike most others, he had independent means and did not need to sell his works to survive. Even so, he became the greatest figure painter of the movement.
Edouard Manet (1832-83)
After Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe and Olympia were both rejected by the Salon, he became the hero of the younger (Impressionist) generation of Parisian painters. Remained a classicist at heart, and spent the rest of his life repairing his links with the Salon. Regarded as the Father of modern painting in France.
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Acknowledged leader of French Impressionism. Devoted to plein-airism in his lifelong pursuit to master the depiction of light, he is best known for his water lily series of paintings, created in his garden at Giverny.
Berthe Morisot (1841-95)
A pupil of Corot, she met Manet, married his brother Eugene, and exhibited in all but one of the group's exhibitions. Regarded as the greatest female Impressionist. Her daughter married the French Expressionist Georges Rouault.
Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
Studied at the French Academy of Fine Arts, was a lifelong anarchist, and plein-air painter of cityscapes and landscapes.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Originally a porcelain-decorator, he took lessons at Charles Gleyre's studio, where he met Monet, Bazille and Sisley. Exhibited at numerous Impressionist shows, and also at the Salon (1879). Became the movement's greatest painter of 'dappled light' before going his own way in the 1880s.
Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
Born in Paris to English parents, he took part in five of the group's exhibitions, remaining (with Monet and Pissarro) a faithful exponent of outdoor Impressionism for the rest of his life. See: Impressionist Landscape Painting.


Other French Impressionists

Frederic Bazille (1841-70)
Rich young friend and painting associate of Monet, Renoir and Sisley. Influenced by Manet, he subsidized Renoir, and appears in Monet's Dejeuner sur l'Herbe.
Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947)
Abandoned a legal career to become a painter. Member of the decorative art group Les Nabis with Paul Serusier (1864-1927), Mauris Denis (1870-1943) and others, before founding an 'interiors' style known as Intimism with his close friend Edouard Vuillard (1869-1940).
Eugene Boudin (1824-98)
Studied under Corot, exhibited at the Salon, and encouraged Monet to take up plein air painting. Exhibited at the first Impressionist show, as gesture of support.
Gustave Caillebotte (1848-94)
Exhibited with the group in five shows, and bought 70 of their paintings.
Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
Quit his career as a stockbroker to become a painter. Associated initially with Pissarro, and exhibited at four of the group's shows in the 1880s. Later took up a symbolist form of Post-Impressionist painting, under the influence of Emile Bernard, Van Gogh and the South Seas.
Armand Guillaumin (1841-1927)
An active and proficient member of the Impressionist circle. He studied with Pissarro and Cezanne, and dug ditches to make ends meet. Won 100,000 francs in the Paris lottery, in 1891.
Henri-Edmond Cross (1856-1910)
French Neo-Impressionist painter influenced by his friendships with Luce, Signac, Van Rysselberghe, Charles Camoin, and Henri-Charles Manguin.
Georges Seurat (1859-1891)
Showed his masterpiece Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte (1884, Art Institute Of Chicago) at the 1886 Impressionist exhibition. In 1884, with Signac, he founded the Societe des Artistes Independents.
Paul Signac (1863-1935)
A painter and the leading colour theorist of Pointillism, he persuaded Seurat to employ the colour pigment techniques of Divisionism which he himself developed further after Seurat's death.
Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901)
Short of stature and crippled in an accident during his youth, he was greatly influenced by Manet, Degas and Van Gogh. Showed a number of his wonderful Parisian music hall pictures with the Impressionists at the Salon des Independents in 1889.
Edouard Vuillard (1869-1940)
A member of Les Nabis, with Bonnard, he developed his own style of quiet Impressionistic-interiors, known as Intimism.

NOTE: The main museum showcase for French Impressionism is the Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

German Impressionists

Adolph Menzel (1815-1905)
Seminal painter whose spontaneous depiction of light and atmosphere was a precursor of later German Impressionism.
Max Liebermann (1847-1935)
Studied at Weimar's Academy of Fine Art and afterwards in Paris under the Barbizon painters. Then strongly influenced by Impressionism, he settled in Berlin where he painted (and collected) Impressionist works.
Lovis Corinth (1858-1925)
Took a degree at the Konigsberg Academy of Art, then studied in Paris and Munich before settling in Berlin as a member of the Berlin Sezession movement. Became one of the most influential German Impressionists, before turning more to expressionism in the wake of a stroke in 1911.
Max Slevogt (1868-1932)
Like Corinth, went to Berlin to join the Sezession movement. Became an important German Impressionist artist, specializing in portraits and genre pictures of theatres and concert halls.

For more, see German Art, 19th Century.

Dutch Impressionists

Johan-Barthold Jongkind (1819-91)
Much older than the others, Jongkind came to Paris as a landscape painter in 1846. He was also a regular painter of the Normandy coast. In 1863, he showed at the Salon des Refuses in Paris, making a noticeable impact on the Impressionists who saw a kindred spirit in his spontaneous style of painting. For later Dutch painters who practised a modern French 'light' Impressionism, see: Post-Impressionism in Holland (1880-1920).

Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)
Moved in 1886 to Paris where he lived with his brother Theo, one of the few art dealers who appreciated the likes of Degas, Gauguin, Seurat and Toulouse-Lautrec. Under their influence, Van Gogh brightened up his palette, and ultimately left to set up a studio for progressive artists in the South of France. During his last few years, his painting shifted to a more expressionist style, becoming more frenzied, more impastoed and even more brilliant in colour.

British Impressionists

Walter Sickert (1860-1942)
A pupil of Whistler and greatly influenced by the drawing skill of his friend Degas. The leading British Impressionist painter, with a subdued palette, he founded the Camden Town Group in 1911, and was a close associate of Camille Pissarro's son Lucien (1863-1944), Frederick Spencer Gore (1878-1914) the Impressionist and first President of the Camden Town Group, and Harold Gilman (1876-1919) the British Post-Impressionist.

Philip Wilson Steer (1860-1942)
Progressive British painter whose 1890s beach scenes and seascapes had a fresh and sparkling Impressionist manner during the early 1890s, before turning to a more conventional style of art after Gainsborough and Constable, and ultimately to watercolours.


Danish/Swedish Impressionists

P.S. Kroyer (1851-1909)
Norwegian-born Danish Impressionist, leader of Skagen artist colony. Noted for Hip Hip Hurrah! Artists Party at Skagen (1888, Goteborgs Konstmuseum, Sweden), and Summer Evening on Skagen's South Beach with Anna Ancher and Marie Kroyer (1893, Skagen Museum).

Vilhelm Hammershoi (1864-1916)
A pupil of P.S. Kroyer, Hammershoi is the greatest Impressionist genre-painter from Denmark, noted for his quiet interiors in muted colours and tones.

Anders Zorn (1860-1920)
The greatest Swedish Impressionist, noted for his society portraits and female nudes.

American Impressionists

James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834–1903)
After flunking West Point, he went to Paris at 21 to study painting. Along with Manet, Pissarro, Guillaumin, Fantin-Latour, Jongkind and Cezanne, he showed at the Salon des Refuses in 1863. Although never an Impressionist proper, his atmospheric Nocturnes were strongly Impressionistic in mood, and paved the way for the emergence of American Impressionism proper.

Mark Fisher (1841-1923)
American painter from Boston who studied under Charles Gleyre with Monet, Sisley and Bazille. Settled in London where he rapidly established a busy practice.

Mary Cassatt (1844-1926)
Daughter of a wealthy Pittsburgh banker, she trained at the Pittsburgh Academy of Arts and afterwards in Paris, where - at the invitation of Degas - she exhibited with the group after 1879. She became the leading American female Impressionist painter, as well as an important source of contacts between painters and American collectors. Sadly, she abandoned painting after being struck by blindness in 1914.

William Merritt Chase (1849-1916)
Early exponent of Impressionism in America, he was known for his park scenes, his portraiture and, above all, for his outstanding contribution to the teaching of art, in New York, Philadelphia and Chicago.

Theodore Robinson (1852-96)
An early exponent of Impressionism, Robinson spent almost a decade in France, where he became a close friend of Claude Monet. Had a conservative style of Impressionism, in which the importance of drawing was never forgotten, but he produced some of the great masterpieces of American Impressionist painting. Best known for his landscapes, genre works and Connecticut boat scenes.

John Henry Twachtman (1853-1902)
Ohio-born Munich and Paris-trained Impressionist landscape painter, influenced by Whistler, Japanese art, and French Impressionism, Twachtman had a personal style of painting which allowed him to infuse his canvases with a range of emotional reactions.

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925)
A strong adherent of Impressionism, though also influenced by Old Master portraitists such as Velazquez and Frans Hals, his rapid virtuoso dexterity lent itself perfectly to the spontaneity of the style. See, for instance, his masterpieces The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit (1882) and El Jaleo (1882). See also Impressionist Portraits.

Childe Hassam (1859-1935)
Trained in Boston and then in Paris (1886-9), where he adopted the techniques and colour palette of the Impressionists. Afterwards he settled in New York and became the first artist to import Impressionism into America. A foremost exponent of the style, he was (like Cassatt before him) given a one-man show at the prestigious Paul Durand-Ruel gallery in Paris, in 1901.

J. Alden Weir (1852-1919)
American painter noted for his Impressionist landscapes, and his more conservative still lifes, flower paintings and portraiture. A close friend of Twachtman, he became President of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors.

The Ten (c.1898-1919)
This American Impressionist group consisted of ten progressive painters from Boston and New York, most of whom had studied in Paris, who exhibited together in a series of shows between 1898 and 1919. Members included: Childe Hassam, Frank W. Benson (1862-1951), Joseph R de Camp (1858-1923), Thomas W. Dewing (1851-1938), William L. Metcalf (1858-1925), Robert Reid (1862-1929), John H Twachtman (1853-1902), Edmund C. Tarbell (1862-1938), Edward E. Simmons (1852-1931), William Merritt Chase (1849-1916), and Julian Alden Weir (1852-1919).

Russian Impressionists

Ivan Shishkin (1832-98)
Russian forest painter, more naturalist than Impressionist.
Ivan Kramskoy (1837–1887)
Outstanding Impressionistic portraitist and genre painter.
Ilya Repin (1844–1930)
Arguably the greatest all-round Russian painter of the Impressionist era.
Isaac Levitan (1860-1900)
Arguably the greatest Russian landscape painter.
Valentin Serov (1865–1911)
Portraitist. One of the great 'Itinerant' painters.

Italian/Spanish Impressionists

An early form of Impressionism in Italy is represented in works by Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908), Silvestro Lega (1826–95), Serafino da Tivoli (1826-92), Giuseppe Abbati (1836-68) and Telemaco Signorini (1835–1901), all of whom were associated with the Macchiaioli painting movement. In Spain, the leading Impressionist was the Catalan painter Joaquin Sorolla Y Bastida (1863-1923).

Australian Impressionists

Tom Roberts (1856-1931)
The Father of Australian landscape painting, he was the first artist to import Impressionism into Australia (1885), following a short European tour. Became a successful portraitist as well as one of the first Aussie plein air painters. For details, see: Heidelberg School (c.1886-1900) of Australian Impressionism.
John Peter Russell (1858-1930)
A contemporary of Roberts, he studied at Slade Art College in London, and afterwards became friendly with Van Gogh in Paris, where he mixed with the Cloisonnism painters Louis Anquetin, and Emile Bernard and the sculptor Rodin. Strongly influenced by Monet, whom he met several times, he returned finally to Sydney in 1908, and was swallowed up by obscurity.
Arthur Streeton (1867-1943)
The most successful of the Heidelberg painters and the greatest landscape artist in the group.
Fred McCubbin (1855-1917)
An early member of the Heidelberg School, though his duties as drawing master at the school of design in Melbourne limited his activity as a plein-air painter; became a founding member of the Australian Art Association.
Charles Conder (1868-1909)
English-born painter, lithographer and fan-designer; an early member of the Heidelberg group, and a close friend of Roberts in the late 1880s.


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